Acacia John Bunyan - Online Library
Saved By Grace,
By J O H N.B U N Y A N.
In this little book thou art presented with a discourse of the GRACE of God, andof salvation by that grace. In which discourse, thou shalt find how each Person inthe Godhead doth his part in the salvation of the sinner. I. The Father putteth forthhis grace, thus. II. The Son putteth forth his grace, thus. III. And the Spirit puttethforth his grace, thus. Which things thou shalt find here particularly handled.
Thou shalt also find, in this small treatise, the way of God with the sinner, asto his CONVERSATION,  and the way of the sinner with God in the same; where[in]the grace of God, and the wickedness of the sinner, do greatly show themselves.
If thou findest me short in things, impute that [to] my love to brevity. If thoufindest me besides the truth in aught, impute that to mine infirmity. But if thoufindest anything here that serveth to thy furtherance and joy of faith, impute thatto the mercy of God bestowed on thee and me.
Thine to serve thee with that little I have,
SAVED BY GRACE.
"BY GRACE YE ARE SAVED."—EPHESIANS 2:5.
In the first chapter, from the fourth to the twelfth verse, the apostle is treatingof the doctrine of election, both with respect to the act itself, the end, and meansconducing thereto. The act, he tells us, was God's free choice of some (verse 4,5,11).The end was God's glory in their salvation (verse 6,14). The means conducing to thatend was Jesus Christ himself—"In whom we have redemption through his blood,the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace" (verse 7). Thisdone, he treateth of the subjection of the Ephesians to the faith, as it was heldforth to them in the Word of the truth of the gospel, as also of their being sealedby the Holy Spirit of God unto the day of redemption (verse 12-14). Moreover, hetelleth them how he gave thanks to God for them, making mention of them in his prayers,even that he would make them see "what is the hope of his calling, and whatthe riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and what is the exceedinggreatness of his power to usward who believe, according to the working of his mightypower, which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead," &c.(verse 15-20).
And lest the Ephesians, at the hearing of these their so many privileges, shouldforget how little they deserved them, he tells them that in time past they were deadin trespasses and sins, and that then they walked in them "according to thecourse of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spiritthat now worketh in the children of disobedience" (Eph 2:2,3).
Having thus called them back to the remembrance of themselves—to wit, what they werein their state of unregeneracy, he proceedeth to show them that their first quickeningwas by the resurrection of Christ their Head, in whom they before were chosen, andthat by him they were already set down in heavenly places, (verse 5,6); inserting,by the way, the true cause of all this blessedness, with what else should be by usenjoyed in another world; and that is, the love and grace of God: "But God,who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we weredead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ [by grace ye are saved]."These last words seen to be the apostle's conclusion rightly drawn from the premises;as who should say, If you Ephesians were indeed dead in trespasses and sins; if indeedyou were by nature the children of wrath, even as others, then you deserve no morethan others. 
Again, if God hath chosen you, if God hath justified and saved you by his Christ,and left others as good as you by nature to perish in their sins, then the true causeof this your blessed condition is, the free grace of God. But just thus it is, thereforeby grace ye are saved; therefore all the good which you enjoy more than others, itis of mere goodwill.
"BY GRACE YE ARE SAVED."
The method that I shall choose to discourse upon these words shall be this—I willpropound certain questions upon the words, and direct particular answers to them;in which answers I hope I shall answer also, somewhat at least, the expectation ofthe godly and conscientious reader, and so shall draw towards a conclusion.
THE QUESTIONS ARE—
I. What is it to be saved? II. What is it to be saved by grace? III. Who are theythat are saved by grace? IV. How it appears that they that are saved, are saved bygrace? V. What might be the reasons which prevailed with God to save us by grace,rather than by any other means?
Now the reason why I propound these five questions upon the words, it is, becausethe words themselves admit them; the first three are grounded upon the several phrasesin the text, and the two last are to make way for demonstration of the whole.
QUEST. I.—WHAT IS IT TO BE SAVED?
This question supposeth that there is such a thing as damnation due to man for sin;for to save supposeth the person to be saved to be at present in a sad condition;saving, to him that is not lost, signifies nothing, neither is it anything in itself."To save, to redeem, to deliver," are in the general terms equivalent,and they do all of them suppose us to be in a state of thraldom and misery; thereforethis word "saved," in the sense that the apostle here doth use it, is aword of great worth, forasmuch as the miseries from which we are saved is the miseryof all most dreadful.
The miseries from which they that shall be saved shall by their salvation be delivered,are dreadful; they are no less than sin, the curse of God, and flames of hell forever. What more abominable than sin? What more insupportable than the dreadful wrathof an angry God? And what more fearful than the bottomless pit of hell? I say, whatmore fearful than to be tormented there for ever with the devil and his angels? Now,to "save," according to my text, is to deliver the sinner from these, withall things else that attend them. And although sinners may think that it is no hardmatter to answer this question, yet I must tell you there is no man, that can feelinglyknow what it is to be saved, that knoweth not experimentally something of the dreadof these three things, as is evident, because all others do even by their practicecount it a thing of no great concern, when yet it is of all other of the highestconcern among men; "For what is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world,and lose his own soul?" (Matt 16:26).
But, I say, if this word "saved" concludeth our deliverance from sin, howcan he tell what it is to be saved that hath not in his conscience groaned underthe burden of sin? yea, it is impossible else that he should ever cry out with allhis heart, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?"—that is, do to be saved(Acts 2:37). The man that hath no sores or aches cannot know the virtue of the salve;I mean, not know it from his own experience, and therefore cannot prize, nor havethat esteem of it, as he that hath received cure thereby. Clap a plaster to a wellplace, and that maketh not its virtue to appear; neither can he to whose flesh itis so applied, by that application understand its worth. Sinners, you, I mean, thatare not wounded with guilt, and oppressed with the burden of sin, you cannot—I willsay it again—you cannot know, in this senseless condition of yours, what it is tobe saved.
Again; this word "saved," as I said, concludeth deliverance from the wrathof God. How, then, can he tell what it is to be saved that hath not felt the burdenof the wrath of God? He—he that is astonished with, and that trembleth at, the wrathof God—he knows best what it is to be saved (Acts 16:29).
Further, this word "saved," it concludeth deliverance from death and hell.How, then, can he tell what it is to be saved that never was sensible of the sorrowsof the one, nor distressed with the pains of the other? The Psalmist says, "Thesorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me: I found troubleand sorrow. Then called I upon the name of the Lord"—(mark, then), "thencalled I upon the name of the Lord; O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul,"—then,in my distress. When he knew what it was to be saved, then he called, because, Isay, then he knew what it was to be saved (Psa 18:4,5; 116:3,4). I say, this is theman, and this only, that knows what it is to be saved. And this is evident, as ismanifest by the little regard that the rest have to saving, or the little dread theyhave of damnation. Where is he that seeks and groans for salvation? I say, whereis he that hath taken his flight for salvation, because of the dread of the wrathto come? "O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrathto come?" (Matt 3:7). Alas! do not the most set light by salvation?—as for sin,how do they love it, embrace it, please themselves with it, hide it still withintheir mouth, and keep it close under their tongue. Besides, for the wrath of God,they feel it not, they fly not from it; and for hell, it is become a doubt to manyif there be any, and a mock to those whose doubt is resolved by atheism.
But to come to the question—What is it to be saved? To be saved may either respectsalvation in the whole of it, or salvation in the parts of it, or both. I think thistext respecteth both—to wit, salvation completing, and salvation completed; for "tosave" is a work of many steps; or, to be as plain as possible, "to save"is a work that hath its beginning before the world began, and shall not be completedbefore it is ended.
First, then, we may be said to be saved in the purpose of God before the world began.The apostle saith that "he saved us, and called us with an holy calling, notaccording to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was givenus in Christ Jesus before the world began" (2 Tim 1:9). This is the beginningof salvation, and according to this beginning all things concur and fall out in conclusion—"Hehath saved us according to his eternal purpose, which he purposed in Christ Jesus."God in thus saving may be said to save us by determining to make those means effectualfor the blessed completing of our salvation; and hence we are said "to be chosenin Christ to salvation." And again, that he hath in that choice given us thatgrace that shall complete our salvation. Yea, the text is very full, "He hathblessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ, according ashe hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world" (Eph 1:3,4).
Second. As we may be said to be saved in the purpose of God before the foundationof the world, so we may be said to be saved before we are converted, or called toChrist. And hence "saved" is put before "called"; "he hathsaved us, and called us"; he saith not, he hath called us, and saved us; buthe puts saving before calling (2 Tim 1:9). So again, we are said to be "preservedin Christ and called"; he saith not, called and preserved (Jude 1). And thereforeGod saith again, "I will pardon them whom I reserve"—that is, as Paul expoundsit, those whom I have "elected and kept," and this part of salvation isaccomplished through the forbearance of God (Jer 50:20; Rom 11:4,5). God bearethwith is own elect, for Christ's sake, all the time of their unregeneracy, until thetime comes which he hath appointed for their conversion. The sins that we stood guiltyof before conversion, had the judgment due to them been executed upon us, we hadnot now been in the world to partake of a heavenly calling. But the judgment dueto them hath been by the patience of God prevented, and we saved all the time ofour ungodly and unconverted state, from that death, and those many hells, that forour sins we deserved at the hands of God.
And here lies the reason that long life is granted to the elect before conversion,and that all the sins they commit and all the judgments they deserve, cannot drivethem out of the world before conversion. Manasseh, you know, was a great sinner,and for the trespass which he committed he was driven from his own land, and carriedto Babylon; but kill him they could not, though his sins had deserved death ten thousandtimes. But what was the reason? Why, he was not yet called; God had chosen him inChrist, and laid up in him a stock of grace, which must be given to Manasseh beforehe dies; therefore Manasseh must be convinced, converted, and saved. That legionof devils that was in the possessed, with all the sins which he had committed inthe time of his unregeneracy, could not take away his life before his conversion(Mark 5). How many times was that poor creature, as we may easily conjecture, assaultedfor his life by the devils that were in him, yet could they not kill him, yea, thoughhis dwelling was near the sea-side, and the devils had power to drive him too, yetcould they not drive him further than the mountains that were by the sea- side; yea,they could help him often to break his chains and fetters, and could also make himas mad as a bedlam,  they could also prevail with him to separate from men, andcut himself with stones, but kill him they could not, drown him they could not; hewas saved to be called; he was, notwithstanding all this, preserved in Christ, andcalled. As it is said of the young lad in the gospel, he was by the devil cast oftinto the fire, and oft into the water, to destroy him, but it could not be; evenso hath he served others, but they must be "saved to be called" (Mark 9:22).How many deaths have some been delivered from and saved out of before conversion!Some have fallen into rivers, some into wells, some into the sea, some into the handsof men; yea, they have been justly arraigned and condemned, as the thief upon thecross, but must not die before they have been converted. They were preserved in Christ,and called.
Called Christian, how many times have thy sins laid thee upon a sick- bed, and, tothine and others' thinking, at the very mouth of the grave? yet God said concerningthee, Let him live, for he is not yet converted. Behold, therefore, that the electare saved before they are called.  "God, who is rich in mercy, for his greatlove wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins," hath preservedus in Christ, and called us (Eph 2:4,5).
Now this "saving" of us arises from six causes. 1. God hath chosen us untosalvation, and therefore will not frustrate his own purposes (1 Thess 5:9). 2. Godhath given us to Christ; and his gift, as well as his calling, is without repentance(Rom 11:29; John 6:37). 3. Christ hath purchased us with his blood (Rom 5:8,9). 4.They are, by God, counted in Christ before they are converted (Eph 1:3,4). 5. Theyare ordained before conversion to eternal life; yea, to be called, to be justified,to be glorified, and therefore all this must come upon them (Rom 8:29,30). 6. Forall this, he hath also appointed them their portion and measure of grace, and thatbefore the world began; therefore, that they may partake of all these privileges,they are saved and called, preserved in Christ, and called.
Third. To be saved is to be brought to, and helped to lay hold on, Jesus Christ byfaith. And this is called saving by grace through faith. "For by grace are yesaved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God" (Eph2:8).
1. They must be brought unto Christ, yea, drawn unto him; for "no man,"saith Christ, "can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him"(John 6:44). Men, even the elect, have too many infirmities to come to Christ withouthelp from heaven; inviting will not do. "As they called them, so they went fromthem," therefore he "drew them with cords" (Hosea 11:2,4).
2. As they must be brought to, so they must be helped to lay hold on Christ by faith;for as coming to Christ, so faith, is not in our own power; therefore we are saidto be raised up with him "through the faith of the operation of God." Andagain, we are said to believe, "according to the working of his mighty power,which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead" (Col 2:12; Eph1:19,20). Now we are said to be saved by faith, because by faith we lay hold of,venture upon, and put on Jesus Christ for life. For life, I say, because God havingmade him the Saviour, hath given him life to communicate to sinners, and the lifethat he communicates to them is the merit of his flesh and blood, which whoso eatethand drinketh by faith, hath eternal life, because that flesh and blood hath meritin it sufficient to obtain the favour of God. Yea, it hath done so [since] that dayit was offered through the eternal Spirit a sacrifice of a sweet- smelling savourto him; wherefore God imputeth the righteousness of Christ to him that believethin him, by which righteousness he is personally justified, and saved from that justjudgment of the law that was due unto him (John 5:26, 6:53-58; Eph 4:32; 5:2; Rom4:23-25).
"Saved by faith." For although salvation beginneth in God's purpose, andcomes to us through Christ's righteousness, yet is not faith exempted from havinga hand in saving of us. Not that it meriteth aught, but is given by God to thosewhich he saveth, that thereby they may embrace and put on that Christ by whose righteousnessthey must be saved. Wherefore this faith is that which here distinguisheth them thatshall be saved from them that shall be damned. Hence it is said, "He that believethnot, shall be damned"; and hence again it is that the believers are called "thechildren, the heirs, and the blessed with faithful Abraham;" that the promiseby faith in Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe (Gal 3:6-9,26; Rom 4:13,14).
And here let Christians warily distinguish betwixt the meritorious and the instrumentalcause of their justification. Christ, with what he hath done and suffered, is themeritorious cause of our justification; therefore he is said to be made to us ofGod, "wisdom and righteousness;" and we are said to be "justifiedby his blood, and saved from wrath through him," for it was his life and bloodthat were the price of our redemption (1 Cor 1:30; Rom 5:9,10). "Redeemed,"says Peter, "not with corruptible things, as silver and gold," alludingto the redemption of money under the law, "but with the precious blood of Christ."Thou art, therefore, as I have said, to make Christ Jesus the object of thy faithfor justification; for by his righteousness thy sins must be covered from the sightof the justice of the law. "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shaltbe saved." "For he shall save his people from their sins" (Acts 16:31;Matt 1:21).
Fourth. To be saved is to be preserved in the faith to the end. "He that shallendure unto the end, the same shall be saved" (Matt 24:13). Not that perseveranceis an accident in Christianity, or a thing performed by human industry; they thatare saved "are kept by the power of God, through faith unto salvation"(1 Peter 1:3-6).
But perseverance is absolutely necessary to the complete saving of the soul, becausehe that falleth short of the state that they that are saved are possessed of, assaved, cannot arrive to that saved state. He that goeth to sea with a purpose toarrive at Spain, cannot arrive there if he be drowned by the way; wherefore perseveranceis absolutely necessary to the saving of the soul, and therefore it is included inthe complete saving of us—"Israel shall be saved in the Lord with an everlastingsalvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end" (Isa 45:17).Perseverance is here made absolutely necessary to the complete saving of the soul.
But, as I said, this part of salvation dependeth not upon human power, but upon himthat hath begun a good work in us (Phil 1:6). This part, therefore, of our salvationis great, and calleth for no less than the power of God for our help to perform it,as will be easily granted by all those that consider—
1. That all the power and policy, malice and rage, of the devils and hell itselfare against us. Any man that understandeth this will conclude that to be saved isno small thing. The devil is called a god, a prince, a lion, a roaring lion; it issaid that he hath death and the power of it, &c. But what can a poor creature,whose habitation is in flesh, do against a god, a prince, a roaring lion, and thepower of death itself? Our perseverance, therefore, lieth in the power of God; "thegates of hell shall not prevail against it."
2. All the world is against him that shall be saved. But what is one poor creatureto all the world, especially if you consider that with the world is terror, fear,power, majesty, laws, jails, gibbets, hangings, burnings, drownings, starvings, banishments,and a thousand kinds of deaths? (1 John 5:4,5; John 16:33).
3. Add to this, that all the corruptions that dwell in our flesh are against us,and that not only in their nature and being, but they lust against us, and war againstus, to "bring us into captivity to the law of sin and death" (Gal 5:17;1 Peter 2:11; Rom 7:23).
4. All the delusions in the world are against them that shall be saved, many of whichare so cunningly woven, so plausibly handled, so rarely polished with Scriptureand reason, that it is ten thousand wonders that the elect are not swallowed up withthem; and swallowed up they would be, were they not elect, and was not God himselfengaged, either by power to keep them from falling, or by grace to pardon if theyfall, and to lift them up again (Matt 24:24; Eph 4:14; Rom 3:12).
5. Every fall of the saved is against the salvation of his soul; but a Christianonce fallen riseth not but as helped by Omnipotent power— "O Israel, thou hastfallen by thine iniquity," "but in me is thy help," says God (Hosea13:9; 14:1; Psa 37:23).
Christians, were you awake, here would be matter of wonder to you, to see a man assaultedwith all the power of hell, and yet to come off a conqueror! Is it not a wonder tosee a poor creature, who in himself is weaker than the moth, to stand against andovercome all devils, all the world, all his lusts and corruptions? (Job 4:19). Orif he fall, is it not a wonder to see him, when devils and guilt are upon him, torise again, stand upon his feet again, walk with God again, and persevere after allthis in the faith and holiness of the gospel? He that knows himself, wonders; hethat knows temptation, wonders; he that knows what falls and guilt mean, wonders;indeed, perseverance is a wonderful thing, and is managed by the power of God; forhe only "is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless beforethe presence of his glory with exceeding joy" (Jude 24). Those of the childrenof Israel that went from Egypt, and entered the land of Canaan, how came they thither?Why, the text says, that "as an eagle spreadeth abroad her wings, so the Lordalone did lead them." And again, "he bore them, and carried them all thedays of old" (Deu 32:11,12; Isa 63:9). David also tells us that mercy and goodnessshould follow him all the days of his life, and so he should dwell in the house ofthe Lord for ever (Psa 23:6).
Fifth. To be saved calls for more than all this; he that is saved, must, when thisworld can hold him no longer, have a safe- conduct to heaven, for that is the placewhere they that are saved must to the full enjoy their salvation. This heaven iscalled "the end of our faith," because it is that which faith looks at;as Peter says, "Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of yoursouls." And again, "But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition;but of them that believe to the saving of the soul" (1 Peter 1:9; Heb 10:39).For, as I said, heaven is the place for the saved to enjoy their salvation in, withthat perfect gladness that is not attainable here. Here we are saved by faith andhope of glory; but there, we that are saved shall enjoy the end of our faith andhope, even the salvation of our souls. There is "Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem,the general assembly and church of the firstborn;" there is the "innumerablecompany of angels, and the spirits of just men made perfect;" there is "Godthe judge of all, and Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant;" there shall oursoul have as much of heaven as it is capable of enjoying, and that without intermission;wherefore, when we come there we shall be saved indeed! But now for a poor creatureto be brought hither, this is the life of the point. But how shall I come hither?there are heights and depths to hinder (Rom 8:38,39).
Suppose the poor Christian is now upon a sick-bed, beset with a thousand fears, andten thousand at the end of that; sick-bed fears! and they are sometimes dreadfulones; fears that are begotten by the review of the sin, perhaps, of forty years'profession; fears that are begotten by dreadful and fearful suggestions of the devil,the sight of death, and the grave, and it may be of hell itself; fears that are begottenby the withdrawing and silence of God and Christ, and by, it may be, the appearanceof the devil himself; some of these made David cry, "O spare me" a little,"that I may recover strength before I go hence, and be no more" (Psa 39:13)."The sorrows of death," said he, "compassed me, and the pains of hellgat hold upon me; I found trouble and sorrow" (Psa 116:3). These things, inanother place, he calls the bands that the godly have in their death, and the plaguesthat others are not aware of. "They are not in trouble as other men; neitherare they plagued like other men" (Psa 73:9). But now, out of all these, theLord will save his people; not one sin, nor fear, nor devil shall hinder; nor thegrave nor hell disappoint thee. But how must this be? Why, thou must have a safe-conductto heaven?  What conduct? A conduct of angels: "Are they not all ministeringspirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?" (Heb1:14).
These angels, therefore, are not to fail them that are the saved; but must, as commissionedof God, come down from heaven to do this office for them; they must come, I say,and take the care and charge of our soul, to conduct it safely into Abraham's bosom.It is not our meanness in the world, nor our weakness of faith, that shall hinderthis; nor shall the loathsomeness of our diseases make these delicate spirits shyof taking this charge upon them. Lazarus the beggar found this a truth; a beggarso despised of the rich glutton that he was not suffered to come within his gate;a beggar full of sores and noisome putrefaction; yet, behold, when he dies, the angelscome from heaven to fetch him thither: "And it came to pass that the beggardied, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22). True,sick-bed temptations are ofttimes the most violent, because then the devil playshis last game with us, he is never to assault us more; besides, perhaps God sufferethit thus to be, that the entering into heaven may be the sweeter, and ring of thissalvation the louder! O it is a blessed thing for God to be our God and our guideeven unto death, and then for his angels to conduct us safely to glory; this is savingindeed. And he shall save Israel "out of all his troubles;" out of sick-bedtroubles as well as others (Psa 25:22; 34:6; 48:14).
Sixth. To be saved, to be perfectly saved, calls for more than all this; the godlyare not perfectly saved when their soul is possessed of heaven. True, their spiritis made perfect, and hath as much of heaven as at present it can hold, but man, consistingof body and soul, cannot be said to be perfectly saved so long as but part of himis in the heavens; his body is the price of the blood of Christ as well as his spirit;his body is the temple of God, and a member of the body, and of the flesh, and ofthe bones of Christ; he cannot, then, be completely saved until the time of the resurrectionof the dead (1 Cor 6:13-19; Eph 5:30). Wherefore, when Christ shall come the secondtime, then will he save the body from all those things that at present make it incapableof the heavens. "For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we lookfor the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ; who shall change" this "our vilebody, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body" (Phil 3:20,21).O what a great deal of good God hath put into this little word "saved"!We shall not see all the good that God hath put into this word "saved"until the Lord Jesus comes to raise the dead. "It doth not yet appear what weshall be" (1 John 3:2). But till it appears what we shall be, we cannot seethe bottom of this word "saved." True, we have the earnest of what we shallbe, we have the Spirit of God, "which is the earnest of our inheritance untilthe redemption of the purchased possession" (Eph 1:14). The possession is ourbody—it is called "a purchased possession," because it is the price ofblood; now the redemption of this purchased possession is the raising of it out ofthe grave, which raising is called the redemption of our body (Rom 8:23). And whenthis vile body is made like unto his glorious body, and this body and soul togetherpossessed of the heavens, then shall we be every way saved.
There are three things from which this body must be saved—1. There is that sinfulfilth and vileness that yet dwells in it, under which we groan earnestly all ourdays (2 Cor 5:1-3). 2. There is mortality, that subjecteth us to age, sickness, aches,pains, diseases, and death. 3. And there is the grave and death itself, for deathis the last enemy that is to be destroyed. "So when this corruptible shall haveput on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall bebrought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory"(1 Cor 15:54). So then, when this comes to pass, then we shall be saved; then willsalvation, in all the parts of it, meet together in our glory; then we shall be everyway saved—saved in God's decree, saved in Christ's undertakings, saved by faith,saved in perseverance, saved in soul, and in body and soul together in the heavens,saved perfectly, everlastingly, gloriously.
[Of the state of our body and soul in heaven.]
Before I conclude my answer to the first question, I would discourse a little ofthe state of our body and soul in heaven, when we shall enjoy this blessed stateof salvation.
First. Of the soul; it will then be filled in all the faculties of it with as muchbliss and glory as ever it can hold.
1. The understanding shall then be perfect in knowledge—"Now we know but inpart;" we know God, Christ, heaven, and glory, but in part; "but when thatwhich is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away" (1Cor 13:10). Then shall we have perfect and everlasting visions of God, and that blessedone his Son Jesus Christ, a good thought of whom doth sometimes so fill us whilein this world, that it causeth "joy unspeakable and full of glory." 2.Then shall our will and affections be ever in a burning flame of love to God andhis Son Jesus Christ; our love here hath ups and downs, but there it shall be alwaysperfect with that perfection which is not possible in this world to be enjoyed. 3.Then will our conscience have that peace and joy that neither tongue nor pen of menor angels can express. 4. Then will our memory be so enlarged to retain all thingsthat happened to us in this world, so that with unspeakable aptness we shall callto mind all God's providences, all Satan's malice, all our own weaknesses, all therage of men, and how God made all work together for his glory and our good, to theeverlasting ravishing of our hearts.
Second. For our body; it shall be raised in power, in incorruption, a spiritual bodyand glorious (1 Cor 15:44). The glory of which is set forth by several things—1.It is compared to "the brightness of the firmament," and to the shiningof the stars "for ever and ever" (Dan 12:3; 1 Cor 15:41,42). 2. It is comparedto the shining of the sun— "Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sunin the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matt 13:43).3. Their state is then to be equally glorious with angels; "But they which shallbe counted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neithermarry, nor are given in marriage; neither can they die any more, for they are equalunto the angels" (Luke 20:35,36). 4. It is said that then this our vile bodyshall be like the glorious body of Jesus Christ (Phil 3:20,21; 1 John 3:2,3). 5.And now, when body and soul are thus united, who can imagine what glory they bothpossess? They will now be both in capacity, without jarring, to serve the Lord withshouting thanksgivings, and with a crown of everlasting joy upon their head. 
In this world there cannot be that harmony and oneness of body and soul as therewill be in heaven. Here the body sometimes sins against the soul, and the soul againvexes and perplexes the body with dreadful apprehensions of the wrath and judgmentof God. While we be in this world, the body oft hangs this way, and the soul thequite contrary; but there, in heaven, they shall have that perfect union as neverto jar more; but now the glory of the body shall so suit with the glory of the soul,and both so perfectly suit with the heavenly state, that it passeth words and thoughts.
Third. Shall I now speak of the place that this saved body and soul shall dwell in?
Why, 1. It is a city (Heb 11:16; Eph 2:19,22). 2. It is called heaven (Heb 10:34).3. It is called God's house (John 14:1-3). 4. It is called a kingdom (Luke 12:32).5. It is called glory (Col 3:4; Heb 2:10). 6. It is called paradise (Rev 2:7). 7.It is called everlasting habitations (Luke 16:9).
Fourth. Shall I speak of their company?
Why, 1. They shall stand and live in the presence of the glorious God, the Judgeof all (Heb 12:23). 2. They shall be with the Lamb, the Lord Jesus. 3. They shallbe with an innumerable company of holy angels (Heb 12:22). 4. They shall be withAbraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of heaven (Luke 13:28).
Fifth. Shall I speak of their heavenly raiment?
1. It is salvation; they shall be clothed with the garment of salvation (Psa 132:16;149:4; Isa 61:10). 2. This raiment is called white raiment, signifying their cleanand innocent state in heaven. "And they," says Christ, "shall walkwith me in white, for they are worthy" (Rev 3:4; 19:8; Isa 57:2). 3. It is calledglory—"When he shall appear, we shall appear with him in glory" (Col 3:4).4. They shall also have crowns of righteousness, everlasting joy and glory (Isa 35:10;2 Tim 4:8; 1 Peter 5:4).
Sixth. Shall I speak of their continuance in this condition?
1. It is for ever and ever. "And they shall see his face, and his name shallbe in their foreheads; and they shall reign for ever and ever" (Rev 22:4,5).2. It is everlasting. "And this is the will of him that sent me, that everyone which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life" (John6:40,47). 3. It is life eternal. "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, andthey follow me; and I give unto them eternal life" (John 10:27,28). 4. It isworld without end. "But Israel shall be saved in the Lord with an everlastingsalvation; ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end" (Isa 45:17;Eph 3:20,21).
O sinner! what sayest thou? How dost thou like being saved? Doth not thy mouth water?Doth not thy heart twitter at being saved? Why, come then: "The Spirit and thebride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirstcome. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely" (Rev 22:17).
QUEST. II.—WHAT IS IT TO BE SAVED BY GRACE?
Now I come to the second question—to wit, What is it to be saved by grace? For soare the words of the text, "By grace ye are saved." But,
First. I must touch a little upon the word GRACE, and show you how diversely it istaken. Sometimes it is taken for the goodwill and favour of men (Esth 2:17: Ruth2:2: 1 Sam 1:18: 2 Sam 16:4). Sometimes it is taken for those sweet ornaments thata life according to the Word of God putteth about the neck  (Prov 1:9; 3:22).Sometimes it is taken for the charity of the saints, as 2 Corinthians 9:6-8.
But "grace" in the text is taken for God's goodwill, "the goodwillof him that dwelt in the bush;" and is expressed variously. Sometimes it iscalled "his good pleasure." Sometimes, "the good pleasure of his will,"which is all one with "the riches of his grace" (Eph 1:7). Sometimes itis expressed by goodness, pity, love, mercy, kindness, and the like (Rom 2:4; Isa63:9; Titus 3:4,5). Yea, he styles himself, "The Lord, the Lord God, mercifuland gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy forthousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no meansclear the guilty" (Exo 34:6,7).
Second. As the word "grace" signifieth all these, so it intimates to usthat all these are free acts of God, free love, free mercy, free kindness; hencewe have other hints in the Word about the nature of grace, as, 1. It is an act ofGod's will, which must needs be free; an act of his own will, of the good pleasureof his will; by each of these expressions is intimated that grace is a free act ofGod's goodness towards the sons of men. 2. Therefore it is expressly said—"Beingjustified freely by his grace" (Rom 3:24). 3. "And when they had nothingto pay, he frankly forgave them both" (Luke 7:42). 4. And again, "Not foryour sakes do I this, saith the Lord God, be it known unto you" (Eze 36:32;Deu 9:5). 5. And therefore "grace," and the deservings of the creature,are set in flat opposition one to another—"And if by grace, then is it no moreof works; otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it nomore grace; otherwise work is no more work" (Rom 11:6).
The word "grace," therefore, being understood, doth most properly set forththe true cause of man's happiness with God, not but that those expressions, love,mercy, goodness, pity, kindness, &c., and the like, have their proper place inour happiness also. Had not God loved us, grace had not acted freely in our salvation;had not God been merciful, good, pitiful, kind, he would have turned away from uswhen he saw us in our blood (Eze 16).
So then, when he saith, "By grace ye are saved," it is all one as if hehad said, By the goodwill, free mercy, and loving-kindness of God ye are saved; asthe words conjoined with the text do also further manifest: "But God,"saith Paul, "who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ [by graceye are saved]."
[Third.] The words thus understood admit us these few conclusions— 1. That God, insaving of the sinner, hath no respect to the sinner's goodness; hence it is saidhe is frankly forgiven, and freely justified (Luke 7:42; Rom 3:24). 2. That God doththis to whom and when he pleases, because it is an act of his own good pleasure (Gal1:15,16). 3. This is the cause why great sinners are saved, for God pardoneth "accordingto the riches of his grace" (Eph 1:7). 4. This is the true cause that some sinnersare so amazed and confounded at the apprehension of their own salvation; his graceis unsearchable; and by unsearchable grace God oft puzzles and confounds our reason(Eze 16:62,63; Acts 9:6). 5. This is the cause that sinners are so often recoveredfrom their backslidings, healed of their wounds that they get by their falls, andhelped again to rejoice in God's mercy. Why, he will be gracious to whom he willbe gracious, and he will have compassion on whom he will have compassion (Rom 9:15).
[Fourth.] But I must not here conclude this point. We are here discoursing of thegrace of God, and that by it we are saved; saved, I say, by the grace of God.
Now, God is set forth in the Word unto us under a double consideration—1. He is setforth in his own eternal power and Godhead; and as thus set forth, we are to conceiveof him by his attributes of power, justice, goodness, holiness, everlastingness,&c. 2. But then, we have him set forth in the Word of truth as consisting ofFather, Son, and Spirit; and although this second consideration containeth in itthe nature of the Godhead, yet the first doth not demonstrate the persons in theGodhead. We are saved by the grace of God—that is, by the grace of the Father, whois God; by the grace of the Son, who is God; and by the grace of the Spirit, whois God.
Now, since we are said to be 'saved by grace," and that the grace of God; andsince also we find in the Word that in the Godhead there are Father, Son, and HolyGhost, we must conclude that it is by the grace of the Father, Son, and Spirit thatwe are saved; wherefore grace is attributed to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost distinctly.1. Grace is attributed to the Father, as these scriptures testify; Romans 7:25, 1Corinthians 1:3, 2 Corinthians 1:2, Galatians 1:3, Ephesians 1:2, Philippians 1:2,Colossians 1:2, 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 2 Thessalonians 1:2, 1 Timothy 1:2, 2 Timothy1:2, Titus 1:4, Philemon 3. 2. Grace is also attributed to the Son, and I first manifestit by all those texts above-mentioned, as also by these that follow: 2 Corinthians8:9, 13:14, Galatians 6:18, Philippians 4:23, 1 Thessalonians 5:28, 2 Thessalonians3:18, Philemon 25, Revelation 22:21. 3. It is also attributed to the Holy Ghost.Now, he is here called the Spirit of grace, because he is the author of grace asthe Father, and the Son (Zech 12:10; Heb 10:29).
So then, it remaineth that I show you, FIRST, How we are saved by the grace of theFather. SECOND, How we are saved by the grace of the Son. And, THIRD, How we aresaved by the grace of the Spirit.
Of the Father's grace.
FIRST. How we are saved by the grace of the Father. Now this will I open unto youthus—
1. The Father by his grace hath bound up them that shall go to heaven in an eternaldecree of election; and here, indeed, as was showed at first, is the beginning ofour salvation (2 Tim 1:9). And election is reckoned not the Son's act, but the Father's—"Blessedbe the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritualblessings in heavenly places in Christ, according as he hath chosen us in him beforethe foundation of the world" (Eph 1:3,4). Now this election is counted an actof grace—"So then, at this present time also, there is a remnant according tothe election of grace" (Rom 11:5).
2. The Father's grace ordaineth and giveth the Son to undertake for us our redemption.The Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world—"In whom we have redemptionthrough his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;that in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace, in hiskindness toward us through Christ Jesus" (Eph 1:7; 2:7; 1 John 4:14; John 3:16;6:32,33; 12:49).
3. The Father's grace giveth us to Christ to be justified by his righteousness, washedin his blood, and saved by his life. This Christ mentioneth, and tells us it is hisFather's will that they should be safe- coming at the last day, and that he had keptthem all the days of his life, and they shall never perish (John 6:37-39; 17:2,12).
4. The Father's grace giveth the kingdom of heaven to those that he hath given toJesus Christ—"Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasureto give you the kingdom" (Luke 12:32).
5. The Father's grace provideth and layeth up in Christ, for those that he hath chosen,a sufficiency of all spiritual blessings, to be communicated to them at their need,for their preservation in the faith, and faithful perseverance through this life;"not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, whichwas given us in Christ Jesus before the world began" (2 Tim 1:9; Eph 1:3,4).
6. The Father's grace saveth us by the blessed and effectual call that he givethus to the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ (1 Col 1:9; Gal 1:15).
7. The Father's grace saveth us by multiplying pardons to us, for Christ's sake,day by day—"In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness ofsins, according to the riches of his grace" (Eph 1:7).
8. The Father's grace saves us by exercising patience and forbearance towards usall the time of our unregeneracy (Rom 3:24).
9. The Father's grace saveth us by holding of us fast in his hand, and by keepingof us from all the power of the enemy—"My Father," said Christ, "thatgave them me, is greater than all, and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father'shand" (John 10:29).
10. What shall I say? The Father's grace saveth us by accepting of our persons andservices, by lifting up the light of his countenance upon us, by manifesting of hislove unto us, and by sending of his angels to fetch us to himself, when we have finishedour pilgrimage in this world.
Of the grace of the Son.
SECOND. I come now to speak of the grace of the Son; for as the Father putteth forthhis grace in the saving of the sinner, so doth the Son put forth his—"For yeknow the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though he was rich, yet for your sakeshe became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich" (2 Cor 8:9).
Here you see also that the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ is brought in as a partnerwith the grace of his Father in the salvation of our souls. Now this is the graceof our Lord Jesus Christ; he was rich, but for our sakes he became poor, that wethrough his poverty might be made rich.
To inquire, then, into this grace, this condescending grace of Christ, and that bysearching out how rich Jesus Christ was, and then how poor he made himself, thatwe through his poverty might have the riches of salvation.
First. How rich was Jesus Christ? To which I answer—1. Generally; 2. Particularly.
1. Generally. He was rich as the Father—"All things that the Father hath,"saith he, "are mine." Jesus Christ is the Lord of all, God over all, blessedfor ever. "He thought it not robbery to be equal with God," being naturallyand eternally God, as the Father, but of his Godhead he could not strip himself (John10:30; 16:15; Acts 10:36; Phil 2:6; Rom 9:4,5).
2. Particularly. Jesus Christ had glory with the Father; yea, a manifold glory withhim, which he stripped himself of.
(1.) He had the glory of dominion, he was Lord of all the creatures; they were underhim upon a double account—(a) as he was their Creator (Col 1:16); (b) as he was madethe heir of God (Heb 1:2).
(2.) Therefore the glory of worship, reverence, and fear from all creatures, wasdue unto him; the worship, obedience, subjection, and service of angels were dueunto him; the fear, honour, and glory of kings, and princes, and judges of the earthwere due unto him; the obedience of the sun, moon, stars, clouds, and all vapours,were due unto him; all dragons, deeps, fire, hail, snow, mountains and hills, beasts,cattle, creeping things, and flying fowls, the service of them all, and their worship,were due unto him (Psa 148).
(3.) The glory of the heavens themselves was due unto him; in a word, heaven andearth were his.
(4.) But above all, the glory of communion with his Father was his; I say, the gloryof that unspeakable communion that he had with the Father before his incarnation,which alone was worth ten thousand worlds, that was ever his.
(5.) But again; as Jesus Christ was possessed with this, so, besides, he was Lordof life; this glory also was Jesus Christ's: "In him was life," thereforehe is called the Prince of it; because it was in him originally as in the Father(Acts 3:15). He gave to all life and breath, and all things; angels, men, beasts,they had all their life from him.
(6.) Again, as he was Lord of glory, and Prince of life, so he was also Prince ofpeace, (Isa 9:6); and by him was maintained that harmony and goodly order which wereamong things in heaven and things on earth.
Take things briefly in these few particulars—(a.) The heavens were his, and he madethem. (b.) Angels were his, and he made them. (c.) The earth was his, and he madeit. (d.) Man was his, and he made him.
[Second. How poor he made himself.] Now this heaven he forsook for our sakes—"Hecame into the world to save sinners" (1 Tim 1:15).
[1.] He was made lower than the angels, for the suffering of death (Heb 2:9). Whenhe was born, he made himself, as he saith, a worm, or one of no reputation; he becamethe reproach and byword of the people; he was born in a stable, laid in a manger,earned his bread with his labour, being by trade a carpenter (Psa 22:6; Phil 2:7;Luke 2:7; Mark 6:3). When he betook himself to his ministry, he lived upon the charityof the people; when other men went to their own houses, Jesus went to the Mount ofOlives. Hark what himself saith for the clearing of this—"Foxes have holes,and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head."He denied himself of this world's good (Luke 8:2,3; 9:58; John 7:35; 8:1).
[2.] Again, as he was Prince of life, so he for our sakes laid down that also; forso stood the matter, that he or we must die; but the grace that was in his heartwrought with him to lay down his life: "He gave his life a ransom for many."He laid down his life that we might have life; he gave his flesh and blood for thelife of the world; he laid down his life for his sheep.
[3.] Again; he was Prince of peace, but he forsook his peace also. (1.) He laid asidepeace with the world, and chose upon that account to be a man of sorrows and acquaintedwith grief, and therefore was persecuted from his cradle to his cross, by kings,rulers, &c. (2.) He laid aside his peace with his Father, and made himself theobject of his Father's curse, insomuch that the Lord smote, struck, and afflictedhim; and, in conclusion, hid his face from him (as he expressed, with great crying)at the hour of his death.
[Object.] But perhaps some may say, What need was there that Jesus Christ shoulddo all this? Could not the grace of the Father save us without this condescensionof the Son?
Answ. As there is grace, so there is justice in God; and man having sinned, God concludedto save him in a way of righteousness; therefore it was absolutely necessary thatJesus Christ should put himself into our very condition, sin only excepted. 1. Nowby sin we had lost the glory of God, therefore Jesus Christ lays aside the glorythat he had with the Father (Rom 3:23; John 17:5). 2. Man by sin had shut himselfout of an earthly paradise, and Jesus Christ will leave his heavenly paradise tosave him (Gen 3:24; 1 Tim 1:15; John 6:38,39). 3. Man by sin had made himself lighterthan vanity, and this Lord God, Jesus Christ, made himself lower than the angelsto redeem him (Isa 40:17; Heb 2:7). 4. Man by sin lost his right to the creatures,and Jesus Christ will deny himself of a whole world to save him (Luke 9:58). 5. Manby sin had made himself subject to death; but Jesus Christ will lose his life tosave him (Rom 6:23). 6. Man by sin had procured to himself the curse of God; butJesus Christ will bear that curse in his own body to save him (Gal 3:13). 7. Manby sin had lost peace with God; but this would Jesus Christ lose also, to the endman might be saved. 8. Man should have been mocked of God, therefore Christ was mockedof men. 9. Man should have been scourged in hell; but, to hinder that, Jesus wasscourged on earth. 10. Man should have been crowned with ignominy and shame; but,to prevent that, Jesus was crowned with thorns. 11. Man should have been piercedwith the spear of God's wrath; but, to prevent that, Jesus was pierced both by Godand men. 12. Man should have been rejected of God and angels; but, to prevent that,Jesus was forsaken of God, and denied, hated, and rejected of men (Isa 48:22; Prov1:24-26; Matt 27:26,39,46; Psa 9:17; 11:6; 22:7; Dan 12:2; John 19:2-5,37; Num 24:8;Zech 12:10; Luke 9:22).
I might thus enlarge, and that by authority from this text—"He became poor,that ye through his poverty might be rich." All the riches he stripped himselfof, it was for our sakes; all the sorrows he underwent, it was for our sakes; tothe least circumstance of the sufferings of Christ there was necessity that so itshould be, all was for our sakes: "For our sakes he became poor, that ye throughhis poverty might be rich."
And you see the argument that prevailed with Christ to do this great service forman, the grace that was in his heart; as also the prophet saith, "In his loveand in his pity he redeemed them." According to this in the Corinthians, "Yeknow the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ"; both which agree with the text, "Bygrace ye are saved."
I say, this was the grace of the Son, and the exercise thereof. The Father thereforeshows his grace one way, and the Son his another. It was not the Father, but theSon, that left his heaven for sinners; it was not the Father, but the Son, that spilthis blood for sinners. The Father indeed gave the Son, and blessed be the Fatherfor that; and the Son gave his life and blood for us, and blessed be the Son forthat.
But methinks we should not yet have done with this grace of the Son. Thou Son ofthe Blessed, what grace was manifest in thy condescension! Grace brought thee downfrom heaven, grace stripped thee of thy glory, grace made thee poor and despicable,grace made thee bear such burdens of sin, such burdens of sorrow, such burdens ofGod's curse as are unspeakable. O Son of God! grace was in all thy tears, grace camebubbling out of thy side with thy blood, grace came forth with every word of thysweet mouth (Psa 45:2; Luke 4:22). Grace came out where the whip smote thee, wherethe thorns pricked thee, where the nails and spear pierced thee. O blessed Son ofGod! Here is grace indeed! Unsearchable riches of grace! Unthought-of riches of grace!Grace to make angels wonder, grace to make sinners happy, grace to astonish devils.And what will become of them that trample under foot this Son of God?
Of the grace of the Spirit. THIRD. I come now to speak of the grace of the Spirit;for he also saveth us by his grace. The Spirit, I told you, is God, as the Fatherand the Son, and is therefore also the author of grace; yea, and it is absolutelynecessary that he put forth his grace also, or else no flesh can be saved. The Spiritof God hath his hand in saving of us many ways; for they that go to heaven, as theymust be beholding to the Father and the Son, so also to the Spirit of God. The Fatherchooseth us, giveth us to Christ, and heaven to us, and the like. The Son fulfillsthe law for us, takes the curse of the law from us, bears in his own body our sorrows,and sets us justified in the sight of God. The Father's grace is showed in heavenand earth; the Son's grace is showed on the earth, and on the cross; and the Spirit'sgrace must be showed in our souls and bodies, before we come to heaven.
Quest. But some may say, Wherein doth the saving grace of the Spirit appear?
Answ. In many things.
In taking possession of us for his own, in his making of us his house and habitation,so that though the Father and the Son have both gloriously put forth gracious actsin order to our salvation, yet the Spirit is the first that makes seizure of us (1Cor 3:16; 6:19; Eph 2:21,22). Christ, therefore, when he went away, said not thathe would send the Father, but the Spirit, and that he should be in us for ever— "IfI depart," said Christ, "I will send him, the Spirit of truth, the Comforter"(John 14:16; 16:7,13).
The Holy Spirit coming into us, and dwelling in us, worketh out many salvations forus now, and each of them in order also to our being saved for ever.
1. He saveth us from our darkness by illuminating of us; hence he is called "theSpirit of revelation," because he openeth the blind eyes, and so consequentlydelivereth us from that darkness which else would drown us in the deeps of hell (Eph1:17,19).
2. He it is that convinceth us of the evil of our unbelief, and that shows us thenecessity of our believing in Christ; without the conviction of this we should perish(John 16:9).
3. This is that finger of God by which the devil is made to give place unto grace,by whose power else we should be carried headlong to hell (Luke 11:20-22).
4. This is he that worketh faith in our hearts, without which neither the grace ofthe Father nor the grace of the Son can save us, "For he that believeth not,shall be damned" (Mark 16:16; Rom 15:13).
5. This is he by whom we are born again; and he that is not so born can neither seenor inherit the kingdom of heaven (John 3:3-7).
6. This is he that setteth up his kingdom in the heart, and by that means keepethout the devil after he is cast out, which kingdom of the Spirit, whoever wanteth,they lie liable to a worse possession of the devil than ever (Matt 12:43-45; Luke11:24,25).
7. By this Spirit we come to see the beauty of Christ, without a sight of which weshould never desire him, but should certainly live in the neglect of him, and perish(John 16:14; 1 Cor 2:9-13; Isa 53:1,2).
8. By this Spirit we are helped to praise God acceptably, but without it, it is impossibleto be heard unto salvation (Rom 8:26; Eph 6:18; 1 Cor 14:15).
9. By this blessed Spirit the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, and our heartsare directed into the love of God (Rom 5:5; 2 Thess 2:13).
10. By this blessed Spirit we are led from the ways of the flesh into the ways oflife, and by it our mortal body, as well as our immortal soul, is quickened in theservice of God (Gal 5:18,25; Rom 8:11).
11. By this good Spirit we keep that good thing, even the seed of God, that at thefirst by the Word of God was infused into us, and without which we are liable tothe worst damnation (1 John 3:9; 1 Peter 1:23; 2 Tim 1:14).
12. By this good Spirit we have help and light against all the wisdom and cunningof the world, which putteth forth itself in its most cursed sophistications to overthrowthe simplicity that is in Christ (Matt 10:19,20; Mark 13:11; Luke 12:11,12).
13. By this good Spirit our graces are maintained in life and vigour, as faith, hope,love, a spirit of prayer, and every grace (2 Cor 4:13; Rom 15:13; 2 Tim 1:7; Eph6:18; Titus 3:5).
14. By this good Spirit we are sealed to the day of redemption (Eph 1:14).
15. And by this good Spirit we are made to wait with patience until the redemptionof the purchased possession comes (Gal 5:5).
Now all these things are so necessary to our salvation, that I know not which ofthem can be wanting; neither can any of them be by any means attained but by thisblessed Spirit.
And thus have I in few words showed you the grace of the Spirit, and how it puttethforth itself towards the saving of the soul. And verily, Sirs, it is necessary thatyou know these things distinctly—to wit, the grace of the Father, the grace of theSon, and the grace of the Holy Ghost; for it is not the grace of one, but of allthese three, that saveth him that shall be saved indeed.
The Father's grace saveth no man without the grace of the Son; neither doth the Fatherand the Son save any without the grace of the Spirit; for as the Father loves, theSon must die, and the Spirit must sanctify, or no soul must be saved.
Some think that the love of the Father, without the blood of the Son, will save them,but they are deceived; for "without shedding of blood is no remission"(Heb 9:22).
Some think that the love of the Father and blood of the Son will do, without theholiness of the Spirit of God; but they are deceived also; for "if any man havenot the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his"; and again, "without holinessno man shall see the Lord" (Rom 8:9; Heb 12:14).
There is a third sort, that think the holiness of the Spirit is sufficient of itself;but they (if they had it) are deceived also; for it must be the grace of the Father,the grace of the Son, and the grace of the Spirit, jointly, that must save them.
But yet, as these three do put forth grace jointly and truly in the salvation ofa sinner, so they put it forth, as I also have showed you before, after a diversemanner. The Father designs us for heaven, the Son redeems from sin and death, andthe Spirit makes us meet for heaven; not by electing, that is the work of the Father;not by dying, that is the work of the Son; but by his revealing Christ, and applyingChrist to our souls, by shedding the love of God abroad in our hearts, by sanctifyingof our souls, and taking possession of us as an earnest of our possession of heaven.
QUEST. III.—WHO ARE THEY THAT ARE TO BE SAVED BY GRACE?
I come now to the third particular—namely, to show you who they are that are to besaved by grace.
[Who are not saved.]
First. Not the self-righteous, not they that have no need of the physician. "Thewhole have no need of the physician," saith Christ. "I came not to callthe righteous, but sinners to repentance" (Mark 2:17). And again, "He hathfilled the hungry with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away" (Luke1:53). Now when I say not the self- righteous nor the rich, I mean not that theyare utterly excluded; for Paul was such an one; but he saveth not such without hefirst awaken them to see they have need to be saved by grace.
Second. The grace of God saveth not him that hath sinned the unpardonable sin. Thereis nothing left for him "but a certain fearful looking for of judgment, - whichshall devour the adversaries" (Heb 10:26,27).
Third. That sinner that persevereth in final impenitency and unbelief shall be damned(Luke 13:3,5; Rom 2:2-5; Mark 16:15,16).
Fourth. That sinner whose mind the god of this world hath blinded, that the gloriouslight of the gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, can never shine into him,is lost, and must be damned (2 Cor 4:3,4).
Fifth. The sinner that maketh religion his cloak for wickedness, he is a hypocrite,and, continuing so, must certainly be damned (Psa 125:5; Isa 33:14; Matt 24:50,51).
Sixth. In a word, every sinner that persevereth in his wickedness, shall not inheritthe kingdom of heaven—"Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit thekingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers,nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous,nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.""Let no man deceive you with vain words; for because of these things comeththe wrath of God upon the children of disobedience" (1 Cor 6:9-12; Eph 5:5,6).
[Who are saved.] Question. But what kind of sinners shall then be saved?
Answ. Those of all these kinds that the Spirit of God shall bring [to] the Fatherby Jesus Christ; these, I say, and none but these, can be saved, because else thesinners might be saved without the Father, or without the Son, or without the Spirit.
Now, in all that I have said, I have not in the least suggested that any sinner isrejected because his sins, in the nature of them, are great; Christ Jesus came intothe world to save the chief of sinners. It is not, therefore, the greatness of, butthe continuance in, sins that indeed damneth the sinner. But I always exclude himthat hath sinned against the Holy Ghost. That it is not the greatness of sin thatexcludeth the sinner is evident—
1. From the words before the text, which doth give an account of what kind of sinnerswere here saved by grace, as namely, they that were dead in trespasses and sins,those that walked in these sins, "according to the course of this world, accordingto the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the childrenof disobedience: among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in thelusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and wereby nature the children of wrath, even as others" (Eph 2:2,3).
2. It is evident also from the many sinners that we find to be saved, by the revealedwill of God. For in the Word we have mention made of the salvation of great sinners,where their names and their sins stand recorded for our encouragement; as, (1.) Youread of Manasseh, who was an idolater, a witch, a persecutor, yea, a rebel againstthe word of God, sent unto him by the prophets; and yet this man was saved (2 Chron33:2-13; 2 Kings 21:16). (2.) You read of Mary Magdalene, in whom were seven devils;her condition was dreadful, yet she was saved (Luke 8:2; John 20). (3.) You readof the man that had a legion of devils in him. O how dreadful was his condition!and yet by grace he was saved (Mark 5:1-10). (4.) You read of them that murderedthe Lord Jesus, and how they were converted and saved (Acts 2:23). (5.) You readof the exorcists, how they closed with Christ, and were saved by grace (Acts 19:13).(6.) You read of Saul the persecutor, and how he was saved by grace (Acts 9:15).
Object. But, thou sayest, I am a backslider.
Answ. So was Noah, and yet he found grace in the eyes of the Lord (Gen 9:21,22).So was Lot, and yet God saved him by grace (Gen 19:35; 2 Peter 2:7-9). So was David,yet by grace he was forgiven his iniquities (2 Sam 12:7-13). So was Solomon, anda great one too; yet by grace his soul was saved (Psa 89:28-34). So was Peter, andthat a dreadful one; yet by grace he was saved (Matt 26:69-74; Mark 16:7; Acts 15:7-11).Besides, for further encouragement, read Jeremiah 3, 33:25,26, 51:5, Ezekiel 36:25,Hosea 14:1-4; and stay thyself, and wonder at the riches of the grace of God.
Quest. But how should we find out what sinners shall be saved? All, it seems, shallnot. Besides, for aught can be gathered by what you have said, there is as bad savedas damned, set him that hath sinned the unpardonable sin aside.
Answ. True, there are as bad saved as damned; but to this question: They that areeffectually called, are saved. They that believe on the Son of God shall be saved.They that are sanctified and preserved in Christ shall be saved. They that take uptheir cross daily, and follow Christ, shall be saved.
Take a catalogue of them thus: "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shaltbe saved" (Mark 16:16; Acts 16:31). "If thou shalt confess with thy mouththe Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from thedead thou shalt be saved" (Rom 10:9). Be justified by the blood of Christ, andthou shalt be saved (Rom 5:9). Be reconciled to God by the death of his Son, andthou shalt be saved by his life (Rom 5:10). "And it shall come to pass, thatwhosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved" (Acts 2:21).
See some other scriptures. "He shall save the humble person" (Job 22:29)."Thou wilt save the afflicted people" (Psa 18:27). "He shall savethe children of the needy" (Psa 72:4). "He shall save the souls of theneedy" (Psa 72:13). "O thou, my God, save thy servant that trusteth inthee" (Psa 86:2). "He will fulfill the desire of them that fear him, healso will hear their cry, and will save them" (Psa 145:19).
[Caution.] But, sinner, if thou wouldst indeed be saved, beware of these four things—
1. Beware of delaying repentance; delays are dangerous and damnable; they are dangerous,because they harden the heart; they are damnable, because their tendency is to makethee outstand the time of grace (Psa 95:7; Heb 3-12).
2. Beware of resting in the word of the kingdom, without the spirit and power ofthe kingdom of the gospel; for the gospel coming in word only saves nobody, for thekingdom of God or the gospel, where it comes to salvation, is not in word but inpower (1 Thess 1:4-6; 1 Cor 4:19).
3. Take heed of living in a profession, a life that is provoking to God; for thatis the way to make him cast thee away in his anger.
4. Take heed that thy inside and outside be alike;, and both conformable to the Wordof his grace; labour to be like the living creatures which thou mayest read of inthe book of the prophet Ezekiel, whose appearance and themselves were one  (Eze10:22).
In all this, I have advertised you not to be content without the power and Spiritof God in your hearts, for without him you partake of none of the grace of the Fatheror Son, but will certainly miss of the salvation of the soul.
QUEST. IV.—HOW IT APPEARS THAT THEY THAT ARE SAVED, ARE SAVED BY GRACE?
This fourth question requireth that some demonstration be given of the truth of thisdoctrine—to wit, that they that are saved are saved by grace.
What hath been said before hath given some demonstration of the truth; wherefore,first repeating in few words the sum of what hath been said already, I shall cometo further proof. 1. That this is true, the Scriptures testify, because God chosethem to salvation before they had done good (Rom 9:11). 2. Christ was ordained tobe their Saviour before the foundation of the world (Eph 1:4; 1 Peter 1:19-21). 3.All things that concur and go to our salvation were also in the same laid up in Christ,to be communicated in the dispensation of the fullness of times, to them that shallbe saved (Eph 1:3,4; 2 Tim 1:9; Eph 1:10; 3:8-11; Rom 8:30).
[That salvation is by grace appears in its contrivance.] Again, as their salvationwas contrived by God, so, as was said, this salvation was undertaken by one of thethree; to wit, the Son of the Father (John 1:29; Isa 48:16).
Had there been a contrivance in heaven about the salvation of sinners on earth, yetif the result of that contrivance had been that we should be saved by our own gooddeeds, it would not have been proper for an apostle, or an angel, to say, "Bygrace ye are saved." But now, when a council is held in eternity about the salvationof sinners in time, and when the result of that council shall be, that the Father,the Son, and the Holy Ghost will themselves accomplish the work of this salvation,this is grace, this is naturally grace, grace that is rich and free; yea, this isunthought-of grace. I will say it again, this is unthought-of grace; for who couldhave thought that a Saviour had been in the bosom of the Father, or that the Fatherwould have given him to be the Saviour of men, since he refused to give him to bethe Saviour of angels? (Heb 2:16,17).
[Grace appears in the Son's undertaking this work.] Again; could it have been thoughtthat the Father would have sent his Son to be the Saviour, we should, in reason,have thought also that he would never have taken the work wholly upon himself, especiallythat fearful, dreadful, soul-astonishing, and amazing part thereof! Who could oncehave imagined that the Lord Jesus would have made himself so poor as to stand beforeGod in the nauseous rags of our sins, and subject himself to the curse and deaththat were due to our sin? but thus he did to save us by grace.
"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed uswith all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: according as he hath chosenus in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and withoutblame before him in love: having predestinated us unto the adoption of children byJesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praiseof the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved; in whomwe have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the richesof his grace" (Eph 1:3-7).
[Grace appears in the terms and conditions on which salvation is made over.] Again;if we consider the terms and conditions upon which this salvation is made over tothem that are saved, it will further appear we are saved by grace.
1. The things that immediately concern our justification and salvation, they areoffered, yea, given to us freely, and we are commanded to receive them by faith.Sinner, hold up thy lap. God so loved the world, that he giveth his Son, that hegiveth his righteousness, that he giveth his Spirit, and the kingdom of heaven (John3:16; Rom 5:17; 2 Cor 1:21,22; Luke 12:32).
2. He also giveth repentance, he giveth faith, and giveth everlasting consolation,and good hope through grace (Acts 5:30,31; Phil 1:29; 2 Thess 2:16).
3. He giveth pardon, and giveth more grace, to keep us from sinking into hell, thanwe have sin to sink us in thither (Acts 5:31; Prov 3:34; John 4:6; 1 Peter 5:5).
4. He hath made all these things over to us in a covenant of grace. We call it acovenant of grace, because it is set in opposition to the covenant of works, andbecause it is established to us in the doings of Christ, founded in his blood, establishedupon the best promises made to him, and to us by him. "For all the promisesof God in him are yea, and in him amen, to the glory of God by us" (2 Cor 1:20).
But to pass these, and to come to some other demonstrations for the clearing of this—
Let us a little consider,
What man is, upon whom the Father, the Son, and the Spirit bestows this grace.
1. [An enemy to God.] By nature he is an enemy to God, an enemy in his mind. "Thecarnal mind is enmity against God, for it is not subject to the law of God, neitherindeed can be" (Rom 8:7; Col 1:21).
2. [A slave to sin.] So that the state of man was this—he was not only over persuadedon a sudden to sin against God, but he drank this sin, like water, into his verynature, mingled it with every faculty of his soul and member of his body; by themeans of which he became alienated from God, and an enemy to him in his very heart;and wilt thou, O Lord, as the Scripture hath it, "And dost thou open thine eyesupon such an one?" (Job 14:3). Yea, open thy heart, and take this man, not intojudgment, but into mercy with thee?
3. [In covenant with death and hell.] Further, man by his sin had not only givenhimself to be a captive slave to the devil, but, continuing in his sin, he made headagainst his God, struck up a covenant with death, and made an agreement with hell;but for God to open his eyes upon such an one, and to take hold of him by richesof grace, this is amazing (Isa 28:16-18).
See where God found the Jew when he came to look upon him to save him—"As forthy nativity," says God, "in the day thou wast born thy navel was not cut,neither wast thou washed in water to supple thee; thou wast not salted at all, norswaddled at all. None eye pitied thee, to do any of these unto thee, to have compassionupon thee; but thou wast cast out in the open field, to the loathing of thy person,in the day that thou wast born. And when I passed by thee, and saw thee pollutedin thine own blood, I said unto thee, when thou wast in thy blood, Live; yea, I saidunto thee, when thou wast in thy blood, Live. - Now when I passed by thee, and lookedupon thee, behold, thy time was the time of love; and I spread my skirt over thee,and covered thy nakedness; yea, I sware unto thee, and entered into a covenant withthee, saith the Lord God, and thou becamest mine." Sinner, see further intothe chapter, Ezekiel 16. All this is the grace of God; every word in this text smellsof grace.
But before I pass this, let us a little take notice of
The carriage of God to man, and again of man to God, in his conversion.
FIRST. OF GOD'S CARRIAGE TO MAN. He comes to him while he is in his sins, in hisblood; he comes to him now, not in the heat and fire of his jealousy, but "inthe cool of the day," in unspeakable gentleness, mercy, pity, and bowels oflove; not in clothing himself with vengeance, but in a way of entreaty, and meeklybeseecheth the sinner to be reconciled unto him (2 Cor 5:19,20).
It is expected among men that he which giveth the offence should be the first inseeking peace; but, sinner, betwixt God and man it is not so; not that we loved God,not that we chose God; but "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself,not imputing their trespasses unto them." God is the first that seeketh peace;and, as I said, in a way of entreaty he bids his ministers pray you in Christ's stead;"as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you, in Christ's stead, be yereconciled to God." O sinner, wilt thou not open? Behold, God the Father andhis Son Jesus Christ stand both at the door of thy heart, beseeching there for favourfrom thee, that thou wilt be reconciled to them, with promise, if thou wilt comply,to forgive thee all thy sins. O grace! O amazing grace! To see a prince entreat abeggar to receive an alms would be a strange sight; to see a king entreat the traitorto accept of mercy would be a stranger sight than that; but to see God entreat asinner, to hear Christ say, "I stand at the door and knock," with a heartfull and a heaven full of grace to bestow upon him that opens, this is such a sightas dazzles the eyes of angels. What sayest thou now, sinner? Is not this God richin mercy? Hath not this God great love for sinners? Nay, further, that thou mayestnot have any ground to doubt that all this is but complementing, thou hast also heredeclared that God hath made his Christ "to be sin for us, who knew no sin, thatwe might be made the righteousness of God in him." If God would have stuck atanything, he would have stuck at the death of his Son; but he "delivered himup for us" freely; "how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?"(Rom 8:32). 
But this is not all. God doth not only beseech thee to be reconciled to him, butfurther, for thy encouragement, he hath pronounced, in thy hearing, exceeding greatand precious promises; "and hath confirmed it by an oath, that by two immutablethings, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation,who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us" (Heb 6:18,19;Isa 1:18; 55:6,7; Jer 51:5).
SECOND. OF MAN'S CARRIAGE TO GOD. Let us come now to the carriage of these sinnersto God, and that from the first day he beginneth to deal with their souls, even tothe time that they are to be taken up into heaven. And,
First. To begin with God's ordinary dealing with sinners, when at first he ministerethconviction to them by his Word, how strangely do they behave themselves! They lovenot to have their consciences touched; they like not to ponder upon what they havebeen, what they are, or what is like to become of them hereafter; such thoughts theycount unmanly, hurtful, disadvantageous; therefore "they refused to hearken,and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear"(Zech 7,11). And now they are for anything rather than the Word; an alehouse, a whorehouse,a playhouse, sports, pleasures, sleep, the world, and what not so they may staveoff the power of the word of God.
Second. If God now comes up closer to them, and begins to fasten conviction uponthe conscience, though such conviction be the first step to faith and repentance,yea, and to life eternal, yet what shifts will they have to forget them, and wearthem off! Yea, although they now begin to see that they must either turn or burn, yet oftentimes even then they will study to wave a present conversion: theyobject, they are too young to turn yet; seven years hence time enough, when theyare old, or come upon a sick-bed. O what an enemy is man to his own salvation! Iam persuaded that God hath visited some of you often with his Word, even twice andthrice, and you have thrown water as fast as he hath by the Word cast fire upon yourconscience. 
Christian, what had become of thee if God had taken thy denial for an answer, andsaid, Then will I carry the word of salvation to another, and he will hear it? Sinner,turn, says God. Lord, I cannot tend it, says the sinner. Turn or burn, says God.I will venture that, says the sinner. Turn, and be saved, says God. I cannot leavemy pleasures, says the sinner: sweet sins, sweet pleasures, sweet delights, saysthe sinner. But what grace is it in God thus to parley with the sinner! O the patienceof God to a poor sinner! What if God should now say, Then get thee to thy sins, getthee to thy delights, get thee to thy pleasures, take them for thy portion, theyshall be all thy heaven, all thy happiness, and all thy portion?
Third. But God comes again, and shows the sinner the necessity of turning now; nowor not at all; yea, and giveth the sinner this conviction so strongly, that he cannotput it off. But behold, the sinner has one spark of enmity still. If he must needsturn now, he will either turn from one sin to another, from great ones to littleones, from many to few, or from all to one, and there stop. But perhaps convictionswill not thus leave him. Why, then, he will turn from profaneness to the law of Moses,and will dwell as long as God will let him upon his own seeming goodness. And nowobserve him, he is a great stickler for legal performance; now he will be a goodneighbour, he will pay every man his own, will leave off his swearing, the alehouse,his sports, and carnal delights; he will read, pray, talk of Scripture, and be avery busy one in religion, such as it is; now he will please God, and make him amendsfor all the wrong he hath done him, and will feed him with chapters, and prayers,and promises, and vows, and a great many more such dainty dishes as these, persuadinghimself that now he must needs be fair for heaven, and thinks besides that he servethGod as well as any man in England can. 
But all this while he is as ignorant of Christ as the stool he sits on, and no nearerheaven than was the blind Pharisee; only he has got in a cleaner way to hell thanthe rest of his neighbours are in—"There is a generation that are pure in theirown eyes, and yet is not washed from their filthiness" (Prov 30:12).
Might not God now cut off this sinner, and cast him out of his sight; might he notleave him here to his own choice, to be deluded by, and to fall in his own righteousness,because he "trusteth to it, and commits iniquity"? (Eze 33:13). But grace,preventing grace, preserves him. It is true, this turn of the sinner, as I said,is a turning short of Christ; but,
Fourth. God in this way of the sinner will mercifully follow him, and show him theshortness of his performances, the emptiness of his duties, and the uncleanness ofhis righteousness (Isa 28:20; 64:6). Thus I speak of the sinner, the salvation ofwhose soul is graciously intended and contrived of God; for he shall by gospel lightbe wearied out of all; he shall be made to see the vanity of all, and that the personalrighteousness of Jesus Christ, and that only, is it which of God is ordained to savethe sinner from the due reward of his sins. But behold, the sinner now, at the sightand sense of his own nothingness, falleth into a kind of despair; for although hehath it in him to presume of salvation, through the delusiveness of his own goodopinion of himself, yet he hath it not in himself to have a good opinion of the graceof God in the righteousness of Christ; wherefore he concludeth, that if salvationbe alone of the grace of God, through the righteousness of Christ, and that all ofa man's own is utterly rejected, as to the justification of his person with God,then he is cast away. Now the reason of this sinking of heart is the sight that Godhath given him, a sight of the uncleanness of his best performance; the former sightof his immoralities did somewhat distress him, and make him betake himself to hisown good deeds to ease his conscience, wherefore this was his prop, his stay; butbehold, now God hath taken this from under him, and now he falls; wherefore his bestdoth also now forsake him, and flies away like the morning dew, or a bird, or asthe chaff that is driven with the whirlwind, and the smoke out of a chimney (Hosea9:11; 13:3). Besides, this revelation of the emptiness of his own righteousness,brings also with it a further discovery of the naughtiness of his heart, in its hypocrisies,pride, unbelief, hardness of heart, deadness, and backwardness to all gospel andnew-covenant obedience, which sight of himself lies like millstones upon his shoulders,and sinks him yet further into doubts and fears of damnation. For, bid him now receiveChrist, he answers he cannot, he dares not. Ask him why he cannot, he will answerhe has no faith, nor hope in his heart. Tell him that grace is offered him freely,he says, but I have no heart to receive it; besides, he finds not, as he thinks,any gracious disposition in his soul, and therefore concludes he doth not belongto God's mercy, nor hath an interest in the blood of Christ, and therefore daresnot presume to believe; wherefore, as I said, he sinks in his heart, he dies in histhoughts, he doubts, he despairs, and concludes he shall never be saved.
Fifth. But behold, the God of all grace leaveth him not in this distress, but comesup now to him closer than ever; he sends the Spirit of adoption, the blessed Comforter,to him, to tell him, "God is love," and therefore not willing to rejectthe broken in heart; bids him cry and pray for an evidence of mercy to his soul,and says, "Peradventure you may be hid in the day of the Lord's anger."At this the sinner takes some encouragement, yet he can get no more than that whichwill hang upon a mere probability, which by the next doubt that ariseth in the heartis blown quite away, and the soul left again in his first plight, or worse, wherehe lamentably bewails his miserable state, and is tormented with a thousand fearsof perishing, for he hears not a word from heaven, perhaps for several weeks together.Wherefore unbelief begins to get the mastery of him, and takes off the very edgeand spirit of prayer, and inclination to hear the Word any longer; yea, the devilalso claps in with these thoughts, saying that all your prayers, and hearing, andreading, and godly company which you frequent, will rise up in judgment against youat last; therefore better it is, if you must be damned, to choose as easy a placein hell as you can. The soul at this, being quite discouraged, thinks to do as ithath been taught, and with dying thoughts it begins to faint when it goeth to prayeror to hear the word; but behold, when all hope seems to be quite gone, and the soulconcludes, I DIE, I PERISH, in comes, on a sudden, the Spirit of God again, withsome good word of God, which the soul never thought of before, which word of Godcommands a calm in the soul, makes unbelief give place, encourageth to hope and waitupon God again; perhaps it gives some little sight of Christ to the soul, and ofhis blessed undertaking for sinners. But behold, so soon as the power of things doesagain begin to wear off the heart, the sinner gives place to unbelief, questionsGod's mercy, and fears damning again; he also entertains hard thoughts of God andChrist, and thinks former encouragements were fancies, delusions, or mere think-so's.And why doth not God now cast the sinner to hell for his thus abusing his mercy andgrace. O no! "He will have mercy on whom he will have mercy, and he will havecompassion on whom he will have compassion"; wherefore "goodness and mercyshall follow him all the days of his life, that he may dwell in the house of theLord for ever" (Psa 23:6).
Sixth. God, therefore, after all these provocations, comes by his Spirit to the soulagain, and brings sealing grace and pardon to the conscience, testifying to it thatits sins are forgiven, and that freely, for the sake of the blood of Christ; andnow has the sinner such a sight of the grace of God in Christ as kindly breaks hisheart with joy and comfort; now the soul knows what it is to eat promises; it alsoknows what it is to eat and drink the flesh and blood of Jesus Christ by faith; nowit is driven by the power of his grace to its knees, to thank God for forgivenessof sins and for hopes of an inheritance amongst them that are sanctified by faithwhich is in Christ; now it hath a calm and sunshine; now "he washeth his stepswith butter, and the rock pours him out rivers of oil" (Job 29:6).
Seventh. But after this, perhaps the soul grows cold again, it also forgets thisgrace received, and waxeth carnal, begins again to itch after the world, loseth thelife and savour of heavenly things, grieves the Spirit of God, woefully backslides,casteth off closet duties quite, or else retains only the formality of them, is areproach to religion, grieves the hearts of them that are awake, and tender of God'sname, &c. But what will God do now? Will he take this advantage to destroy thesinner? No. Will he let him alone in his apostasy? No. Will he leave him to recoverhimself by the strength of his now languishing graces? No. What then? Why, he willseek this man out till he finds him, and bring him home to himself again: "Forthus saith the Lord God, Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek themout. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among the sheep thatare scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all placeswhere they have been scattered. - I will seek that which was lost, and bring againthat which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthenthat which was sick" (Eze 34:11,16).
Thus he dealt with the man that went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell amongthieves; and thus he dealt with the prodigal you read of also (Luke 10:30-35; 15:20).
Of God's ordinary way of fetching the backslider home I will not now discourse—namely,whether he always breaketh his bones for his sins, as he broke David's; or whetherhe will all the days of their life, for this, leave them under guilt and darkness;or whether he will kill them now, that they may not be damned in the day of judgment,as he dealt with them at Corinth (1 Cor 11:30-32). He is wise, and can tell how toembitter backsliding to them he loveth. He can break their bones, and save them;he can lay them in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deep, and save them; he canslay them as to this life, and save them. And herein again appears wonderful grace,that "Israel is not forsaken, nor Judah of his God, though their land was filledwith sin against the Holy One of Israel" (Jer 51:5).
Eighth. But suppose God deals not either of these ways with the backslider, but shinesupon him again, and seals up to him the remission of his sins a second time, saying,"I will heal their backslidings, and love them freely," what will the souldo now? Surely it will walk humbly now, and holily all its days. It will never backslideagain, will it? It may happen it will not, it may happen it will; it is just as hisGod keeps him; for although his sins are of himself, his standing is of God; I say,his standing, while he stands, and his recovery, if he falls, are both of God; wherefore,if God leaves him a little, the next gap he finds, away he is gone again. "Mypeople," says God, "are bent to backsliding from me." How many timesdid David backslide; yea, Jehoshaphat and Peter! (2 Sam 11,24; 2 Chron 19:1-3; 20:1-5;Matt 26:69-71; Gal 2:11-13). As also in the third of Jeremiah it is said, "Butthou hast played the harlot with many lovers, yet return unto me, saith the Lord"(verse 1). Here is grace! So many time as the soul backslides, so many times Godbrings him again—I mean, the soul that must be saved by grace—he renews his pardons,and multiplies them. "Lo, all these things worketh God oftentimes with man"(Job 33:29).
Ninth. But see yet more grace. I will speak here of heart- wanderings, and of dailymiscarriages—I mean, of these common infirmities that are incident to the best ofsaints, and that attend them in their best performances; not that I intend, for Icannot, mention them particularly, that would be a task impossible; but such thereare, worldly thoughts, unclean thoughts, too low thoughts of God, of Christ, of theSpirit, words, ways, and ordinances of God, by which a Christian transgresses manytimes; may I not say, sometimes many hundred times a day; yea, for aught I know,there are some saints, and them not long-lived either, that must receive, beforethey enter into life, millions of pardons from God for these; and every pardon isan act of grace, through the redemption that is in Christ's blood. 
Seventy times seven times a day we sometimes sin against our brother; but how manytimes, in that day, do we sin against God? Lord, "who can understand his errors?cleanse thou me from secret faults" [sins], said David. And again, "Ifthou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? But there is forgivenesswith thee that thou mayest be feared" (Matt 18:21,22; Psa 19:12; 130:3,4).
But to mention some of them. Sometimes they question the very being of God, or foolishlyask how he came to be at first; sometimes they question the truth of his Word, andsuspect the harmony thereof, because their blind hearts and dull heads cannot reconcileit; yea, all fundamental truths lie open sometimes to the censure of their unbeliefand atheism; as, namely, whether there be such an one as Christ, such a thing asthe day of judgment, or whether there will be a heaven or hell hereafter, and Godpardons all these by his grace. When they believe these things, even then they sin,by not having such reverent, high, and holy thoughts of them as they ought; theysin also by having too, too good thoughts of themselves, of sin, and the world; sometimes,let me say, often, they wink too much at known sin, they bewail not, as they should,the infirmities of the flesh; the itching inclinations which they find in their heartsafter vanity go too often from them unrepented of. I do not say but they repent themin the general. But all these things, O how often doth God forgive, through the richesof his grace!
They sin by not walking answerably to mercies received; yea, they come short in theirthanks to God for them, even then when they most heartily acknowledge how unworthythey are of them; also, how little of the strength of them is spent to his praise,who freely poureth them into their bosoms; but from all these sins are they savedby grace. They sin in their most exact and spiritual performance of duties; theypray not, they hear not, they read not, they give not alms, they come not to theLord's table, or other holy appointments of God, but in and with much coldness, deadness,wanderings of heart, ignorance, misapprehensions, &c. They forget God while theypray unto him; they forget Christ while they are at his table; they forget his Wordeven while they are reading of it.
How often do they make promises to God, and afterwards break them! Yea, or if theykeep promise in show, how much doth their heart even grudge the performing of them;how do they shuck at the cross; and how unwilling are they to lose that littlethey have for God, though all they have was given them to glorify him withal! 
All these things, and a thousand times as many more, dwell in the flesh of man; andthey may as soon go away from themselves as from these corruptions; yea, they maysooner cut the flesh from their bones than these motions of sin from their flesh;these will be with them in every duty—I mean, some or other of them; yea, as oftenas they look, or think, or hear, or speak. These are with them, especially when theman intends good in so doing: "When I would do good," says Paul, "evilis present with me." And God himself complains that "every imaginationof the thoughts of the heart of man is only evil," and that "continually"(Rom 7:21; Gen 6:5).
By these things, therefore, we continually defile ourselves, and every one of ourperformances—I mean, in the judgment of the law—even mixing iniquity with those thingswhich we hallow unto the Lord. "For from within, out of the heart of men, proceedevil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness,deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness; all these evilthings come from within, and defile the man" (Mark 7:21- 23). Now what can deliverthe soul from these but grace? "By grace ye are saved."
QUEST. V.—WHAT MIGHT BE THE REASON MOVED GOD TO ORDAIN AND CHOOSE TO SAVE THOSE THATHE SAVETH BY HIS GRACE, RATHER THAN BY ANY OTHER MEANS?
I come now to answer the fifth question; namely, to show why God saveth those thathe saveth by grace, rather than by any other means.
First. God saveth us by grace, because since sin is in the world, he can save usno other way; sin and transgression cannot be removed but by the grace of God throughChrist; sin is the transgression of the law of God, who is perfectly just. Infinitejustice cannot be satisfied with the recompence that man can make; for if it could,Christ Jesus himself needed not to have died; besides, man having sinned, and defiledhimself thereby, all his acts are the acts of a defiled man; nay, further, the bestof his performances are also defiled by his hands; these performances, therefore,cannot be a recompence for sin. Besides, to affirm that God saveth defiled man forthe sake of his defiled duties— for so, I say, is every work of his hand—what isit but to say, God accepteth of one sinful act as a recompence and satisfaction foranother? (Hag 2:14). But God, even of old, hath declared how he abominates imperfectsacrifices, therefore we can by no means be saved from sin but by grace (Rom 3:24).
Second. To assert that we may be saved any other way than by the grace of God, whatis it but to object against the wisdom and prudence of God, wherein he aboundethtowards them whom he hath saved by grace? (Eph 1:5-8). His wisdom and prudence foundout no other way, therefore he chooseth to save us by grace.
Third. We must be saved by grace, because else it follows that God is mutable inhis decrees, for so hath he determined before the foundation of the world; thereforehe saveth us not, nor chooseth to save us by any other way, than by grace (Eph 1:3,4;3:8-11; Rom 9:23).
Fourth. If man should be saved any other way than by grace, God would be disappointedin his design to cut off boasting from his creature; but God's design to cut offboasting from his creature cannot be frustrated or disappointed; therefore he willsave man by no other means than by grace; he, I say, hath designed that no fleshshould glory in his presence, and therefore he refuseth their works; "Not ofworks, lest any man should boast." "Where is boasting then? It is excluded.By what law? of works? Nay; but by the law of faith" (Eph 2:8,9; Rom 3:24-28).
Fifth. God hath ordained that we should be saved by grace, that he might have thepraise and glory of our salvation; that we should be "to the praise of the gloryof his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved" (Eph 1:6). NowGod will not lose his praise, and his glory he will not give to another; thereforeGod doth choose to save sinners but by his grace.
Sixth. God hath ordained, and doth choose to save us by grace, because, were thereanother way apparent, yet this is the way that is safest, and best secureth the soul."Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise[the promise of eternal inheritance, (Heb 9:14-16)] might be sure to all the seed"(Rom 4:16). No other way could have been sure. This is evident in Adam, the Jews,and, I will add, the fallen angels, who being turned over to another way than grace,you see in short time what became of them.
To be saved by grace supposeth that God hath taken the salvation of our souls intohis own hand; and to be sure it is safer in God's hand than ours. Hence it is calledthe salvation of the Lord, the salvation of God, and salvation, and that of God.
When our salvation is in God's hand, himself is engaged to accomplish it for us.1. Here is the mercy of God engaged for us (Rom 9:15). 2. Here is the wisdom of Godengaged for us (Eph 1:7,8). 3. Here is the power of God engaged for us (1 Peter 1:3-5).4. Here is the justice of God engaged for us (Rom 3:24,25). 5. Here is the holinessof God engaged for us (Psa 89:30-35). 6. Here is the care of God engaged for us,and his watchful eye is always over us for our good (1 Peter 5:7; Isa 27:1-3).
What shall I say? Grace can take us into favour with God, and that when we are inour blood (Eze 16:7,8). Grace can make children of us, though by nature we have beenenemies to God (Rom 9:25,26). Grace can make them God's people which were not God'speople (1 Peter 2:9,10). Grace will not trust our own salvation in our own hands—"Heputteth no trust in his saints" (Job 15:15). Grace can pardon our ungodliness,justify us with Christ's righteousness; it can put the spirit of Jesus Christ withinus, it can help us up when we are down, it can heal us when we are wounded, it canmultiply pardons, as we, through frailty, multiply transgressions.
What shall I say? Grace and mercy are everlasting. They are built up for ever. Theyare the delight of God. They rejoice against judgment. And therefore it is the mostsafe and secure way of salvation, and therefore hath God chosen to save us by hisgrace and mercy rather than any other way (Isa 43:25; Rom 3:24,25; Isa 44:2,4; Psa37:23; Luke 10:33,34; Isa 55:7,8; Psa 136; 89:2; Mal 3:18; James 2:13).
Seventh. We must be saved by the grace of God, or else God will not have his will.They that are saved are "predestinated unto the adoption of children by JesusChrist to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise of theglory of his grace" (Eph 1:5,6).
1. But if it be his will that men should be saved by grace, then to think of anotherway is against the will of God. Hence they that seek to establish their own righteousnessare such as are accounted to stand out in defiance against, and that do not submitto, the righteousness of God—that is, to the righteousness that he hath willed tobe that through which alone we are saved by grace (Rom 10:3).
2. If it be his will that men should be saved through grace, then it is his willthat men should be saved by faith in that Christ who is the contrivance of grace;therefore they that have sought to be justified another way have come short of, andperished notwithstanding, that salvation that is provided of God for men by grace(Rom 9:31-33).
3. God is not willing that faith should be made void, and the promise of none effect;therefore they of the righteousness of the law are excluded: "for if the inheritancebe of the law, it is no more of promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise"(Rom 4:14 Gal 3:18).
4. God is not willing that men should be saved by their own natural abilities; butall the works of the law which men do to be saved by, they are the works of men'snatural abilities, and are therefore called the work of the flesh, but God is notwilling that men should be saved by these, therefore no way but by his grace (Rom4:1; Gal 3:1-3; Phil 3:3).
Eighth. We must be saved by grace, or else the main pillars and foundations of salvationare not only shaken, but overthrown—to wit, election, the new covenant, Christ, andthe glory of God; but these must not be overthrown; therefore we must be saved bygrace.
1. Election, which layeth hold of men by the grace of God, God hath purposed thatthat shall stand—the election of God standeth sure; therefore men must be saved byvirtue of the election of grace (Rom 9:11; 2 Tim 2:19).
2. The covenant of grace, that must stand—"Brethren, I speak after the mannerof men. Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed [as this is, bythe death of the testator, (Heb 9:16,17)] no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto";therefore man must be saved by virtue of a covenant of grace (Gal 3:15).
3. Christ, who is the gift of the grace of God to the world, he must stand, becausehe is a sure foundation, "the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever"; thereforemen must be saved by grace, through the redemption that is in Christ (Isa 28:16;Heb 13:8).
4. God's glory, that also must stand; to wit, the glory of his grace; for that hewill not give to another; therefore men must so be saved from the wrath to come,that in their salvation praise may redound to the glory of his grace.
Ninth. There can be but one will the master in our salvation; but that shall neverbe the will of man, but of God; therefore man must be saved by grace (John 1:13;Rom 9:16).
Tenth. There can be but one righteousness that shall save a sinner; but that shallnever be the righteousness of men, but of Christ (therefore men must be saved bygrace), that imputeth this righteousness to whom he will.
Eleventh. There can be but one covenant by which men must be saved; but that shallnever be the covenant of the law, for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof;therefore men must be saved by the covenant of grace, by which God will be mercifulto our unrighteousnesses, and our sins and iniquities will remember no more (Heb8:6-13).
A few words by way of use, and so I shall conclude.
THE FIRST USE.
First. Is the salvation of the sinner by the grace of God? Then here you see thereason why God hath not respect to the personal virtues of men in the bringing ofthem to glory. Did I say, personal virtues? How can they have any to Godward thatare enemies to him in their minds by wicked works? Indeed, men one to another seemto be, some better, some worse, by nature, but to God they are all alike, dead intrespasses and sins. 
We will, therefore, state it again—Are men saved by grace? Then here you may seethe reason why conversion runs at that rate among the sons of men, that none areconverted for their good deeds, nor rejected for their bad, but even so many of both,and only so many, are brought home to God as grace is pleased to bring home to him.
1. None are received for their good deeds; for then they would not be saved by grace,but by works. Works and grace, as I have showed, are in this matter opposite eachto other; if he be saved by works, then not by grace; if by grace, then not by works(Rom 11). That none are received of God for their good deeds is evident, not onlybecause he declares his abhorrence of the supposition of such a thing, but hath alsorejected the persons that have at any time attempted to present themselves to Godin their own good deeds for justification. This I have showed you before.
2. Men are not rejected for their bad deeds. This is evident by Manasseh, by themurderers of our Lord Jesus Christ, by the men that you read of in the nineteenthof the Acts, with many others, whose sins were of as deep a dye as the sins of theworst of men (2 Chron 33:2,13; Acts 2:23,41; 19:19).
Grace respecteth, in the salvation of a sinner, chiefly the purpose of God; whereforethose that it findeth under that purpose, those it justifies freely, through theredemption that is in Jesus Christ. At Saul's conversion, Ananias of Damascus broughtin a most dreadful charge against him to the Lord Jesus Christ, saying, "Lord,I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem;and here he hath authority from the chief priests to bind all that call on thy name."But what said the Lord unto him? "Go thy way, for he is a chosen vessel untome" (Acts 9:13-15). This man's cruelty and outrage must not hinder his conversion,because he was a chosen vessel. Men's good deeds are no argument with God to convertthem; men's bad deeds are no argument with him to reject them. I mean, those thatcome to Christ, by the drawings of the Father; besides, Christ also saith, "Iwill in no wise cast" such "out." (John 6:37-44).
Second. Is the salvation of the sinner by the grace of God? Then here you see thereason why some sinners, that were wonderfully averse to conversion by nature, areyet made to stoop to the God of their salvation. Grace takes them to do, becausegrace hath designed them to this very thing. Hence some of the Gentiles were takenfrom among the rest; God granted them repentance unto life, because he had takenthem from among the rest, both by election and calling, for his name (Acts 11:18;15:14). These men that were not a people, are thus become the people of God; thesemen that were not beloved for their works, were yet beloved by the grace of God."I will call them my people which were not my people; and her beloved whichwas not beloved." But their minds are averse. But are they the people on whomGod doth magnify the riches of his grace? Why, then, they shall be, in the day ofhis power, made willing, and be able to believe through grace (Psa 110:3; Rom 9:25;Acts 18:27). But doth the guilt and burden of sin so keep them down that they canby no means lift up themselves? Why, God will, by the exceeding greatness of thatpower by which he raised Christ from the dead, work in their souls also by the Spiritof grace, to cause them to believe and to walk in his ways (Eph 1:18-20).
Paul tells us, in that epistle of his to the Corinthians, that it was by grace hewas what he was—"By the grace of God I am what I am," says he, "andhis grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain" (1 Cor 15:10). This mankept always in his mind a warm remembrance of what he was formerly by nature, andalso how he had added to his vileness by practice; yea, moreover, he truly concludedin his own soul, that had not God, by unspeakable grace, put a stop to his wickedproceedings, he had perished in his wickedness; hence he lays his call and conversionat the door of the grace of God—"When it pleased God," says he, "whoseparated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace, to reveal his Sonin me" (Gal 1:15,16). and hence it is, again, that he saith, "He obtainedgrace and apostleship"; grace to convert his soul, and the gifts and authorityof an apostle, to preach the gospel of the grace of God.
This blessed man ascribes all to the grace of God. 1. His call he ascribes to thegrace of God. 2. His apostleship he ascribes to the grace of God. 3. And all hislabour in that charge he also ascribes to the grace of God.
This grace of God it was that which saved from the beginning. 1. Noah found gracein the eyes of the Lord, and was therefore converted and preserved from the flood(Gen 6:8). 2. Abraham found grace in the sight of the Lord, and therefore he wascalled out of his country (Gen 12:1,2). 3. Moses found grace in the eyes of the Lord,and therefore he must not be blotted out of God's book (Exo 33:12,17).
Neither may it be imagined that these men were, before grace laid hold on them, betterthan other men; for then they would not have been saved by grace; grace should nothave had the dominion and glory of their salvation. But, as Paul says of himself,and of those that were saved by grace in his day, "What then? are we betterthan they? No, in no wise; for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles thatthey are all under sin" (Rom 3:9). So it may be said of these blessed ones;for indeed this conclusion is general, and reacheth all the children of men, ChristJesus alone only excepted. But,
Third. Is the salvation of the sinner by the grace of God? Then here you may seethe reason why one backslider is recovered, and another left to perish in his backsliding.
There was grace for Lot, but none for his wife; therefore she was left in her transgression,but Lot was saved notwithstanding. There was grace for Jacob, but none for Esau;therefore Esau was left in his backsliding, but Jacob found mercy notwithstanding.There was grace for David, but none for Saul; therefore David obtained mercy, andSaul perished in his backsliding. There was grace for Peter, but none for Judas;therefore Judas is left to perish in his backsliding, and Peter is saved from hissin. That text stands good to none but those that are elect by grace—"Sin shallnot have dominion over you; for ye are not under the law, but under grace" (Rom6:14).
It will be said, repentance was found in one, but not in the other. Well, but whogranted and gave the one repentance; The Lord turned, and looked upon Peter; he didnot turn and look upon Judas; yea, the Lord told Peter before he fell that he shouldfollow him to the kingdom of heaven, but told him that he should deny him first;but withal told him also he should not let his heart be troubled, that is, utterlydejected, for he would go and prepare a place for him, and come again and receivehim to himself (John 13:36-38; 14:1-3). That is a blessed word of God, "Thesteps of a good man are ordered by the Lord, and he delighteth in his way. Thoughhe fall, he shall not be utterly cast down; for the Lord upholdeth him with his hand"(Psa 37:23,24).
THE SECOND USE.
My second use shall be to them that are dejected in their souls at the sight andsense of their sins.
First. Are they that are saved, saved by grace? Then they that would have their guiltyconsciences quieted, they must study the doctrine of grace.
It is Satan's great design either to keep the sinner senseless of his sins, or ifGod makes him sensible of them, then to hide and keep from his thoughts the sweetdoctrine of the grace of God, by which alone the conscience getteth health and cure;"for everlasting consolation, and good hope" is given "through grace"(1 Thess 2:16). How then shall the conscience of the burdened sinner by rightly quieted,if he perceiveth not the grace of God?
Study, therefore, this doctrine of the grace of God. Suppose thou hast a diseaseupon thee which is not to be cured but by such or such medicines, the first stepto thy cure is to know the medicines. I am sure this is true as to the case in hand;the first step to the cure of a wounded conscience is for thee to know the graceof God, especially the grace of God as to justification from the curse in his sight.
A man under a wounded conscience naturally leaneth to the works of the law, and thinksGod must be pacified by something that he should do, whereas the Word says, "Iwill have mercy and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinnersto repentance" (Matt 9:13).
Wherefore thou must study the grace of God. "It is a good thing," saiththe apostle, "that the heart be established with grace"; thereby insinuatingthat there is no establishment in the soul that is right but by the knowledge ofthe grace of God (Heb 13:9).
I said, that when a man is wounded in his conscience, he naturally leaneth to theworks of the law; wherefore thou must therefore be so much the more heedful to studythe grace of God; yea, so to study it as rightly, not only in notion, but in thypractices, to distinguish it from the law. "The law was given by Moses, butgrace and truth came by Jesus Christ" (John 1:17). Study it, I say, so as todistinguish it, and that, not only from the law, but from all those things that menblasphemously call this grace of God.
There are many things which men call the grace of God, that are not.
1. The light and knowledge that are in every man. 2. That natural willingness thatis in man to be saved. 3. That power that is in man by nature to do something, ashe thinketh, towards his own salvation.
I name these three; there are also many other which some will have entitled the graceof God. But do thou remember that the grace of God is his goodwill and great loveto sinners in his Son Jesus Christ; "by the which" good "will we aresanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Heb10:10).
Again; when thou hast smelt out this grace of God, and canst distinguish it fromthat which is not, then labour to strengthen thy soul with the blessed knowledgeof it. "Thou therefore, my son," said Paul, "be strong in the gracethat is in Christ Jesus" (2 Tim 2:1). Fortify thy judgment and understanding;but especially labour to get down all into thy conscience, that that may be "purgedfrom dead works, to serve the living God."
[Second.] And to enforce this use upon thee yet further, consider, a man gets yetmore advantage by the knowledge of, and by growing strong in, this grace of God.
1. It ministereth to him matter of joy; for he that knows this grace aright, he knowsGod is at peace with him, because he believeth in Jesus Christ, who by grace tasteddeath for every man; "by whom also we have access by faith into this grace whereinwe stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God" (Rom 5:2). And indeed whatjoy or what rejoicing is like rejoicing here? To rejoice in hope of the glory ofGod, it is to rejoice in hope to enjoy him for ever, with that eternal glory thatis in him.
2. As it manifesteth matter of joy and rejoicing, so it causeth much fruitfulnessin all holiness and godliness. "For the grace of God that bringeth salvationhath appeared to all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts,we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world" (Titus2:11,12). Yea, it so naturally tendeth this way, that it can no sooner appear tothe soul, but it causeth this blessed fruit in the heart and life. "We ourselvesalso were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures,living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. But after that the kindnessand love of God our Saviour appeared"— what then? Why then, he that believeth,being justified by his grace, and expecting to be an heir according to the hope ofeternal life, is "careful to maintain good works" (Titus 3:3- 8). See alsothat in Paul's epistle to the Colossians—"We give thanks," says he, "toGod and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you, since we heardof your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which ye have to all the saints, forthe hope which is laid up for you in heaven, whereof ye heard before in the wordof the truth of the gospel; which is come unto you, as it is in all the world; andbringeth forth fruit, as it doth also in you, since the day ye heard of it, and knewthe grace of God in truth" (Col 1:3-6).
3. The knowledge of, and strength that comes by, the grace of God is a sovereignantidote against all, and all manner of delusions that are or may come into the world.Wherefore Peter, exhorting the believers to take heed that they were not carriedaway with the errors of the wicked, and so fall from their own steadfastness, adds,as their only help, this exhortation—"But grow in grace, and in the knowledgeof our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" (2 Peter 3:18).
(1.) Suppose it should be urged, that man's own righteousness saveth the sinner;why, then, we have this at hand—God "hath saved us, and called us, not accordingto our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ"&c. (2 Tim 1:9).
(2.) Suppose it should be urged, that by the doctrine of free grace we must not understandGod's extending free forgiveness as far as we have or do sin; the answer is—"Butwhere sin abounded, grace did much more abound: that as sin hath reigned unto death,even so might grace reign through righteousness," through the justice of Godbeing satisfied by his Son, "unto eternal life" (Rom 5:20,21).
(3.) Suppose it should be urged, that this is a doctrine tending to looseness andlasciviousness; the answer is ready—"What shall we say then? Shall we continuein sin, that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, liveany longer therein?" for the doctrine of free grace believed is the most sin-killingdoctrine in the world (Rom 6:1,2).
(4.) Suppose men should attempt to burden the church of God with unnecessary ceremonies,and impose them, even as the false apostles urged circumcision of old, saying,Unless you do these things, ye cannot be saved; why, the answer is ready—"Whytempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the necks of the disciples, which neither our fathersnor we were able to bear? But we believe that through the grace of the Lord JesusChrist we shall be saved, even as they" (Acts 15:1,10,11). But not to enlarge,
[Third.] This doctrine, "By grace ye are saved," it is the only remedyagainst despairing thoughts at the apprehension of our own unworthiness; as,
1. Thou criest out, O cursed man that I am! my sins will sink me into hell.
Answ. Hold, man; there is a God in heaven that is "the God of all grace"(1 Peter 5:10). Yet thou art not the man of all sin. If God be the God of all grace,then if all the sins in the world were thine, yet the God of all grace can pardon,or else it should seem that sin is stronger in a man penitent, to damn, than thegrace of God can be to save.
2. But my sins are of the worst sort—blasphemy, adultery, covetousness, murder, &c.
Answ. "All manner of sins and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men, wherewithsoeverthey shall blaspheme.—Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man histhoughts; and let him return unto the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him; andto our God, for he will abundantly pardon" (Matt 12:31; Mark 3:28; Isa 55:7,8).
3. But I have a stout and rebellious heart, a heart that is far from good.
Answ. "Hearken unto me," saith God, "ye stout-hearted, that are farfrom righteousness: I bring near my righteousness"; that is, the righteousnessof Christ, by which stout-hearted sinners are justified, though ungodly (Isa 46:12,13;Phil 3:7,8; Rev 4:5).
4. But I have a heart as hard as any stone.
Answ. "A new heart also will I give you," says God, "and a new spiritwill I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, andI will give you a heart of flesh" (Eze 36:26).
5. But I am as blind as a beetle; I cannot understand anything of the gospel.
Answ. "I will bring the blind by a way that they know not; I will lead themin paths that they have not known: I will make darkness light before them, and crookedthings straight. These things will I do unto them, and not forsake them" (Isa42:16).
6. But my heart will not be affected with the sufferings and blood of Christ.
Answ. "I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem,the Spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they havepierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shallbe in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born" (Zech12:10).
7. But though I see what is like to become of me if I find not Christ, yet my spirit,while I am thus, will be running after vanity, foolishness, uncleanness, wickedness.
Answ. "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: fromall your filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse you" (Eze 36:25).
8. But I cannot believe in Christ.
Answ. But God hath promised to make thee believe. "I will also leave in themidst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of theLord." And again, "There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall riseto reign over the Gentiles, in him shall the Gentiles trust" (Zeph 3:12; Rom15:12).
9. But I cannot pray to God for mercy.
Answ. But God hath graciously promised a spirit of prayer—"Yea, many peopleand strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem, and to praybefore the Lord.—They shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, Itis my people; and they shall say, The Lord is my God" (Zech 8:22; 12:10; 13:9).
10. But I cannot repent. Answ. "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whomye slew and hanged on a tree. Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Princeand a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins" (Acts5:30,31).
Thus might I enlarge, for the holy Bible is full of this exceeding grace of God.O these words, "I will" and "you shall"! they are the languageof a gracious God; they are promises by which our God has engaged himself to do thatfor poor sinners which would else be left undone for ever.
THE THIRD USE.
Are they that are saved, saved by grace? Then let Christians labour to advance God'sgrace. FIRST. In heart. SECOND. In life.
FIRST. In heart; and that in this manner—
First. Believe in God's mercy through Jesus Christ, and so advance the grace of God;I mean, venture heartily, venture confidently, for there is a sufficiency in thegrace of God. Abraham magnified the grace of God when "he considered not hisown body now dead, - neither yet the deadness of Sarah's womb: he staggered not atthe promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God"(Rom 4:19,20).
Second. Advance it by heightening of it in thy thoughts. Have always good and greatthoughts of the grace of God; narrow and slender thoughts of it are a great disparagementto it.
And to help thee in this matter, consider—1. This grace is compared to a sea—"Andthou will cast all their sins into the depths of the sea" (Micah 7:19). Nowa sea can never be filled by casting into it. 
2. This grace is compared to a fountain, to an open fountain—"In that day thereshall be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem,for sin and for uncleanness." Now a fountain can never be drawn dry (Zech 12:1).3. The Psalmist cries out concerning the grace and mercy of God, "It endurethfor ever"; he says so twenty-six times in one psalm. Surely he saw a great dealin it, surely he was taken a great deal with it (Psa 136). 4. Paul says the God ofall grace can do more than "we ask or think" (Eph 3:20). 5. Therefore asGod's Word says, so thou shouldst conclude of the grace of God.
Third. Come boldly to the throne of grace by hearty prayer; for this is the way alsoto magnify the grace of God. This is the apostle's exhortation, "Let us thereforecome boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace tohelp in time of need" (Heb 4:16). See here a little, and wonder.
We have been all this while discoursing of the grace of God; and now we are cometo his throne, as Job says, "even to his seat"; and behold, "thatis a throne of grace." O, when a God of grace is upon a throne of grace, anda poor sinner stands by and begs for grace, and that in the name of a gracious Christ,in and by the help of the Spirit of grace, can it be otherwise but such a sinnermust obtain mercy and grace to help in time of need? But not to forget the exhortation,"Come boldly." Indeed, we are apt to forget this exhortation; we think,seeing we are such abominable sinners, we should not presume to come boldly to thethrone of grace; but yet so we are bidden to do; and to break a commandment hereis as bad as to break it in another place.
You may ask me, What is it to come boldly? [I] answer—
1. It is to come confidently—"Let us draw near with a true heart, in full assuranceof faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washedwith pure water" (Heb 10:22).
2. To come boldly, it is to come frequently—"At morning, at noon, and at night,will I pray." We use to count them bold beggars that come often to our door.
3. To come boldly, it is to ask for great things when we come. That is the bold beggarthat will not only ask, but also choose the thing that he asketh.
4. To come boldly, it is to ask for others as well as ourselves, to beg mercy andgrace for all the saints of God under heaven as well as for ourselves—"Prayingalways with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit - for all saints" (Eph6:18).
5. To come boldly, it is to come and take no nay; thus Jacob came to the throne ofgrace—"I will not let thee go except thou bless me" (Gen 32:26).
6. To come boldly, it is to plead God's promises with him both in a way of justiceand mercy, and to take it for granted God will give us—because he hath said it—whateverwe ask in the name of his Son.
Fourth. Labour to advance God's grace in thy heart, by often admiring, praising,and blessing God in secret for it; God expects it— "Whoso offereth praise glorifiethme," says he. "By Jesus Christ therefore let us offer the sacrifice ofpraise to God continually; that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to his name"(Psa 50:23; Heb 13:15).
SECOND. [In life.] But again; as we should advance this grace in our hearts, so weshould do it in our life. We should in our conversation adorn the doctrine of Godour Saviour in all things. It is a great word of the apostle, "Only let yourconversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ," which is the gospel ofthe grace of God (Phil 1:27). God expecteth that there should in our whole life bea blessed tang of the gospel, or that in our life among men there should be preachedto them the grace of the gospel of God.
The gospel shows us that God did wonderfully stoop and condescend for our good; andto do accordingly, it is to stoop and condescend to others.
The gospel shows us that there was abundance of pity, love, bowels, and compassionin God towards us; and accordingly we should be full of bowels, pity, love, and compassionto others.
The gospel shows us that in God there is a great deal of willingness to do good toothers.
The gospel shows us that God acteth towards us according to his truth and faithfulness,and so should we be in all our actions one to another.
By the gospel, God declares that he forgiveth us ten thousand talents, and we oughtlikewise to forgive our brother the hundred pence.
And now, before I conclude this use, let me give you a few heart- endearing considerationsto this so good and so happy a work.
First. Consider, God hath saved thee by his grace. Christian, God hath saved thee,thou hast escaped the lion's mouth, thou art delivered from wrath to come; advancethe grace that saves thee, in thy heart and life.
Second. Consider, God left millions in their sins that day he saved thee by his grace;he left millions out, and pitched upon thee; it may be hundreds also, yea, thousands,were in the day of thy conversion lying before him under the preaching of the wordas thou wert, yet he took thee.  Considerations of this nature affected Davidmuch; and God would have them affect thee, to the advancing of his grace in thy lifeand conversation (Psa 78:67-72; Deu 7:7).
Third. Consider, perhaps the most part of those that God refused that day that hecalled thee by his grace were, as to conversation, far better than ever thou wert—Iwas a blasphemer, I was a persecutor, I was an injurious person, but I obtained mercy!O this should affect thy heart, this should engage thy heart to study to advancethis grace of God (1 Tim 1:14,15).
Fourth. Perhaps in the day of thy conversion thou wast more unruly than many. Likea bullock unaccustomed to the yoke, hardly tamed, thou wast brought home by stronghands; thou wouldst not drive, the Lord Jesus must take thee up, lay thee upon hisshoulder, and carry thee home to his Father's house. This should engage thy heartto study to advance the grace of God (Luke 15:1-6).
Fifth. It may be many did take even offence at God in his converting and saving ofthee by his grace, even as the elder son was offended with his father for killingthe fatted calf for his brother, and yet that did not hinder the grace of God, normake God abate his love to thy soul. This should make thee study to advance the graceof God in thy heart and life (Luke 15:21-32).
Sixth. Consider again, that God hath allowed thee but a little time for this goodwork, even the few days that thou hast now to live—I mean, for this good work amongsinful men, and then thou shalt go to receive that wages that grace also will givethee for thy work to thy eternal joy.
Seventh. Let this also have some place upon thy heart—every man shows subjectionto the god that he serveth; yea, though that god be none other but the devil andhis lusts; and wilt not thou, O man! saved of the Lord, be much more subject "tothe Father of spirits, and live"?
Alas! they are pursuing their own damnation, yet they sport it, and dance all theway they go. They serve that "god" (Satan) with cheerfulness and delight,who at last will plunge them into the everlasting gulf of death, and torment themin the fiery flames of hell; but thy God is the God of salvation, and to God thyLord belong the issues from death. Wilt not thou serve him with joyfulness in theenjoyment of all good things, even him by whom thou art to be made blessed for ever?
Object. This is that which kills me—honour God I cannot; my heart is so wretched,so spiritless, and desperately wicked, I cannot.
Answ. What dost thou mean by cannot? 1. If thou meanest thou hast no strength todo it, thou hast said an untruth, for "greater is he that is in you, than hethat is in the world" (1 John 4:4). 2. If thou meanest thou hast no will, thenthou art out also; for every Christian, in his right mind, is a willing man, andthe day of God's power hath made him so (Psa 110:3). 3. If thou meanest that thouwantest wisdom, that is thine own fault—"If any man lack wisdom, let him askof God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not" (James 1:5).
Object. I cannot do things as I would.
Answ. No more could the best of the saints of old—"To will is present with me,"said Paul; "but how to perform that which is good I find not." And again,"The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: andthese are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that yewould" (Rom 7:18; Gal 5:17).
And here indeed lies a great discovery of this truth, "ye are saved by grace";for the children of God whilst here, notwithstanding their conversion to God, andsalvation by Christ through grace, are so infirm and weak by reason of a body ofdeath that yet remaineth in them, that should even the sin that is in the best oftheir performances be laid to their charge, according to the tenor of a covenantof works, they would find it impossible ever to get into glory. But why do I talkthus? It is impossible that those that are saved by grace should have their infirmitieslaid to their charge as afore, "for they are not under the law"; they areincluded by the grace of God in the death and blood of the Son of God, who ever livethto make intercession for them at the right hand of God; whose intercession is soprevalent with the Father as to take away the iniquity of our holy things from hissight, and to present us holy, and unreprovable, and unblamable in his sight. Tohim, by Christ Jesus, through the help of the blessed Spirit of grace, be given praise,and thanks, and glory, and dominion, by all his saints, now and for ever. Amen.
 General course of manners, behaviour, deportment, especially as it regards morals(see Phil 1:27, 1 Peter 1:15).
 Their conduct proved to the living that they were dead, they themselves havingno feeling or sense of spiritual life; but, when quickened, their penitence and goodworks were brought into existence by Divine power; they feel the joys of salvation,but feel also their total unworthiness of this new creating power, and sing, "Oto grace how great a debtor!"—Ed.
 The hospital of St. Mary Bethlem, vulgarly called "Bedlam," bestowed,in 1545, upon the citizens of London, who appropriated it to the reception of lunatics.It being the only public hospital for that class of the afflicted in England, itgave the name of "bedlam" to all whose conduct could only be accountedfor on the score of madness.—Ed.
 The person who writes this, was a singular instance of the truth of our author'sremark; having been twice providentially preserved from drowning, and once from thefatal effects of a violent fever, before effectual saving grace had reached his soul.The same rich and abundant mercy follows all the elect, quickens them when dead,saves them when lost, and restores them when ruined. God hath chosen us unto salvation,and enables us to live holily on earth, in order to a life of happiness in heaven.The Father's good will and pleasure is the only fountain from whence the salvationof believers flows; and such as are given to Christ by the Father he considers ashis charge, and stands engaged for their preservation; and the death of Christ forsinners, is an evident demonstration of the love of God the Father, and the LordJesus Christ, towards them; this love manifested in time was in and upon the heartof God before the world began.—Mason. What a multitude of unseen dangers, both spiritualand temporal, the Christian escapes before he is called!—Ed.
 "Rarely," finely, nicely.
 A safe-conduct is a military term, either a convoy or guard for protection inan enemy's land, or a passport, by the sovereign of a country, to enable a subjectto travel with safety.—Imperial Dict.— Ed.
 Footnote seven is missing.
 What heart can conceive the glorious worship of heaven? The new song shall beas the voice of many waters, and a great thunder, when the "ten thousand timesten thousand and thousand of thousands" shall sing, "Worthy is the Lambthat was slain, to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour,and blessing." O that my poor voice may join that celestial choir!—Ed.
 The fear of the Lord—an ornament of grace unto thy head, and chains about thyneck, and life unto thy soul.—Solomon.
 "Their appearance and themselves"; this beautiful illustration mightescape the reader's notice, unless specially directed to it. The living creatureswere always the same, although seen under different circumstances, and in diverseplaces. Inside and out they were the same; without deviation or turning, they wentstraight forward. It is well said that Bunyan has here snatched a grace beyond thereach of art, and has applied it to exalt and beautify consistency of Christian character.—Ed.
 This is one of Bunyan's peculiarly affecting representations, which in preachingwent to the heart, producing intense interest, and tears of contrition over the stubbornnessof human nature. Reader, Bunyan, being dead, yet speaketh; can you feel unaffectedunder such an appeal?—Ed.
 "To stave," to thrust, to push, to delay.—Ed.
 These terms are taken from Foxe's Martyrology. It was frequently the brutalremark of the Judges, You must turn or burn. Bunyan here applies it to turning fromsin or burning in hell.—Ed.
 This treatise having been written some years after the Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyanvery naturally refers to the well- known scene in the Interpreter's House, wherethe fire is kept burning by oil from behind the wall, in spite of all the water thrownupon its flames.—Ed.
 "To tend," to watch, to guard, to attend.—Ed.
 How pointedly, how admirably, does this illustrate the fond absurdities, theextreme follies of the human heart! "To serve God with such dainty dishes,"the cleanest being befouled with sin. "A cleaner way to hell than our neighbours!"—Ed.
 O how humbling a consideration! Our sins are numberless, of omission, of commission,openly and secretly; nay, in a thousand cases they escape the sinner's observation."Cleanse thou me from secret faults."—Ed.
 "Shuck," to shake or start back.—Ed.
 In Bunyan's time, the saints of God were sorely tormented by penalties, fines,and imprisonments. It required great faith in a mother, who saw all her goods seized,for not going to church, the incarnate devils throwing the milk that was warmingfor her infant on the dunghill, and the skillet in which it was contained into thecart, answering her prayers for mercy on her babe. Let the brat of a heretic starve.—Ed.
 How abasing and humbling to human pride is it thus to conceive, that all havesinned, and, in the sight of God, are hell- deserving. What! says the honourableman, must I take mercy upon no higher consideration than the thief on the cross?Or the highly virtuous dame, Must I sue for mercy upon the same terms as the Magdalene?The faithful answer to both is, YES, or you must perish.—Ed.
 "False apostles," mentioned in Acts 15, who would have blended Jewishobservances with Christianity, and have brought the converts into misery and thraldom.They are specially referred to in 2 Corinthians 11:13, "false apostles,"deceitful workers, that devour you and take from you (verse 20). In contradistinctionto Paul, who was "chargeable to no man" (verse 9).—Ed.
 We must not for a moment imagine that Bunyan was afraid of temporal consequences,which prevents his enlarging upon this part of his subject. His contemptuous answerto Fowler for attacking the doctrine of justification, although a great man withthe state, and soon afterwards made a bishop, is a proof that he was a stranger tothe fear of man. He had said enough, and therefore there was no need to enlarge.—Ed.
 How does Bunyan here exhibit the perfection as well as the freeness of the pardonthat Micah celebrates! That which is sunk in the depths of the sea is lost for ever.—Ed.
 "Tang," taste, touch, savour, flavour, relish, tone, sound. A wordof extensive meaning, but now nearly obsolete. "No tang of prepossession orfancy appears in the morality of our Saviour or his apostles."—Locke.—Ed.
 What can I render unto thee, my God, for such unspeakable blessedness? The cattleupon a thousand hills, yea, all creation, all that I have and am, is thine: all thatI can do is "to take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord."Not unto us, but unto thy name, be all the praise and honour of salvation!—Ed.
 In the edition of 1692, this sentence is "subject to the Father of spiritsand love." It is a very singular mode of expression to call God "the Fatherof love." God is love, and that author and source of all holy love. Bunyan wasat all times governed by Scripture phrases, with which his mind was so richly imbuedas to cause him, if we may so speak, to live in a scriptural atmosphere; and thissentence bears a great affinity to Hebrews 12:9, "Shall we not much rather bein subjection to the Father of spirits, and live." I have been, for these reasons,induced to consider the letter o in "love" a typographical error, and havealtered the word to "live," but could not take such a liberty without apublic notice.—Ed.