Acacia John Bunyan - Online Library
By J O H N.B U N Y A N.
Published four years after John Bunyan's death.
THE SAINTS' KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST'S LOVE.
"THAT YE - - - MAY BE ABLE TO COMPREHEND WITH ALL SAINTS, WHAT IS THE BREADTH,AND LENGTH, AND DEPTH, AND HEIGHT; AND TO KNOW THE LOVE OF CHRIST, WHICH PASSETHKNOWLEDGE."
The Apostle having, in the first chapter, treated of the doctrine of election, andin the second, of the reconciling of the Gentiles with the Jews to the Father, byhis Son, through the preaching of the gospel; comes in the third chapter to shewthat that also was, as that of election, determined before the world began. Now lestthe afflictions that attend the gospel should, by its raging among these Ephesians,darken the glory of these things unto them; therefore he makes here a brief repetitionand explanation, to the end they might be supported and made live above them. Healso joins thereto a fervent prayer for them, that God would let them see in thespirit and faith, how they, by God and by Christ, are secured from the evil of theworst that might come upon them. "For this cause I bow my knees unto the Fatherof our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named;that he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthenedwith might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts byfaith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend withall saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know thelove of Christ, which passeth knowledge," &c. Knowing, that their deep understandingwhat good by these were reserved for them, they would never be discouraged, whatevertroubles should attend their profession.
BREADTH, and LENGTH, and DEPTH, and HEIGHT, are words that in themselves are bothambiguous, and to wonderment; ambiguous, because unexplained, and to wonderment,because they carry in them an unexpressible something; and that something that whichfar out-goes all those things that can be found in this world. The Apostle here wasunder a spiritual surprise, for while meditating and writing, he was caught: Thestrength and glory of the truths that he was endeavouring to fasten upon the peopleto whom he wrote, took him away into their glory, beyond what could to the full beuttered. Besides, many times things are thus expressed, on purpose to command attention,a stop and pause in the mind about them; and to divert, by their greatness, the heartfrom the world, unto which they naturally are so inclined. Also, truths are oftendelivered to us, like wheat in full ears, to the end we should rub them out beforewe eat them, and take pains about them, before we have the comfort of them.
BREADTH, LENGTH, DEPTH, and HEIGHT. In my attempting to open these words, I willgive you, some that are of the same kind. And then show you, First, The reasons ofthem; and then also, Secondly, Something of their fullness.
Those of the same kind, are used sometimes to shew us the power, force, and subtiltyof the enemies of God's Church, (Dan 4:11, Rom 8:38,39). But,
[Sometimes] Most properly to shew us the infinite and unsearchable greatness of God,(Job 11:7,8,9, Rom 11:33).
They are here to be taken in this second sense, that is, to suggest unto us the unsearchableand infinite greatness of God; who is a breadth, beyond all breadths; a length, beyondall lengths; a depth, beyond all depths; and a height, beyond all heights, and thatin all his attributes: He is an eternal being, an everlasting being, and in thatrespect he is beyond all measures, whether they be of breadth, or length, or depth,or height. In all his attributes he is beyond all measure: whether you measure bywords, by thoughts, or by the most enlarged and exquisite apprehension; His greatnessis unsearchable; His judgments are unsearchable (Job 5:9): He is infinite in wisdom."O! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!" (Rom11:33) "If I speak of strength, lo, he is strong" (Job 9:19); yea, "thethunder of his power who can understand?" (Job 26:14) "There is none holyas the Lord" (1 Sam 2:2): "and his mercy is from everlasting to everlasting,upon them that fear him" (Psa 103:17). The greatness of God, of the God andFather of our Lord Jesus Christ, is that, if rightly considered, which will supportthe spirits of those of his people that are frighted with the greatness of theiradversaries. For here is a greatness against a greatness. Pharaoh was great, butGod more great, more great in power, more great in wisdom, more great every way forthe help of his people; wherein they dealt proudly, he was above them. These wordstherefore take in for this people, the great God who in his immensity and infinitegreatness is beyond all beings. But, to come
FIRST, to the reason of the words. They are made use of to shew to the Ephesians,that God with what he is in himself, and with what he hath in his power, is all forthe use and profit of the believers. Else no great matter is held out to them thereby."But this God is our God!" there is the comfort: For this cause thereforehe presenteth them with this description of him. To wit, by breadth, and length,and depth, and height: As who should say, the High God is yours; the God that fillsheaven and earth is yours; the God whom the heaven of heavens cannot contain, isyours; yea, the God whose works are wonderful, and whose ways are past finding out,is yours. Consider therefore the greatness that is for you, that taketh part withyou, and that will always come in for your help against them that contend with you.It is my support, it is my relief; it [is] my comfort in all my tribulations, andI would have it ours, and so it will when we live in the lively faith thereof. Norshould we admit of distrust in this matter from the consideration of our own unworthiness,either taken from the finiteness of our state, or the foulness of our ways (Psa 46).For now, though God's attributes, several of them in their own nature, are set againstsin and sinners; yea, were we righteous, are so high that needs they must look overus, for 'tis to him a condescension to behold things in heaven: How much more thento open his eyes upon such as we: yet by the passion of Jesus Christ, they harmoniouslyagree in the salvation of our souls. Hence God is said to be love (1 John 4), Godis love; might some say, and justice too: but his justice is turned with wisdom,power, holiness and truth, to love; yea, to love those that be found in his Son:forasmuch as there is nothing fault-worthy in his righteousness which is put uponus. So then, as there is in God's nature a length, and breadth, and depth, and height,that is beyond all that we can think: So we should conclude that all this is loveto us, for Christ's sake; and then dilate with it thus in our minds, and enlargeit thus in our meditations; saying still to our low and trembling spirits: "Itis high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know? themeasure thereof is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea" (Job11:8,9). But we will pass generals, and more particularly speak
SECONDLY, something of their fullness, as they are fitted to suit and answer to thewhole state and condition of a Christian in this life. The words are boundless; wehave here a breadth, a length, a depth, and height made mention of; but what breadth,what length, what depth, what height is not so much as hinted. It is therefore infinitenesssuggested to us, and that has engaged for us. For the Apostle conjoins therein, Andto know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge. Thus therefore it suits and answersa Christian's condition, while in this world, let that be what it will. If his afflictionsbe broad, here is a breadth; if they be long, here is a length,; and if they be deep,here is a depth; and if they be high, here is a height. And I will say, there isnothing that is more helpful, succouring, or comfortable to a Christian while ina state of trial and temptation, than to know that there is a breadth to answer abreadth, a length to answer a length, a depth to answer a depth, and a height toanswer a height. Wherefore this is it that the Apostle prayeth for, namely, thatthe Ephesians might have understanding in these things, "That ye may know whatis the breadth, and length, and depth, and height."
Of the largeness of the Apostle's heart in praying for this people, to wit, "Thatthey might be able to comprehend with all saints, what," &c. of that weshall speak afterwards.
But first, to speak to these four expressions, breadth, length, depth, and height.
First, What is the BREADTH. This word is to shew, that God is all over, everywhere,spreading of his wings, stretching out his goodness to the utmost bounds, for thegood of those that are his people (Deu 32:11,12, Gen 49:26).
In the sin of his people there is a breadth; a breadth that spreadeth over all, wheresoevera man shall look. The sin of the saints is a spreading leprosy (Lev 13:12). Sin isa scab that spreadeth; it is a spreading plague; it knows no bounds (Lev 13:8, 57):or, as David saith, "I have seen the wicked spreading himself" (Psa 37:35).Hence it is compared to a cloud, to a thick cloud, that covereth or spreadeth overthe face of all the sky. Wherefore here is a breadth called for, a breadth that cancover all, or else what is done is to no purpose. Therefore to answer this, herewe have a breadth, a spreading breadth; "I spread my skirt over thee":But how far? Even so far as to cover all. "I spread my skirt over thee, andcovered thy nakedness" (Eze 16:8). Here now is a breadth according to the spreadingnature of the sin of this wretched one; yea, a super-abounding spreading; a spreadingbeyond; a spreading to cover. "Blessed is he whose sin is covered" (Psa32:1), whose spreading sin is covered by the mercy of God through Christ (Rom 4:4-7).This is the spreading cloud, whose spreadings none can understand (Job 36:29). "Hespread a cloud for a covering, and fire to give light in the night" (Psa 105:39).
This breadth that is in God, it also overmatcheth that spreading and overspreadingrage of men, that is sometimes as if it would swallow up the whole church of God.You read of the rage of the king of Assyria, that there was a breadth in it, an overflowingbreadth, to the filling of "the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel" (Isa 8:8).But what follows? "Associate yourselves, O ye people, [ye Assyrians] and yeshall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries; gird yourselvesand ye shall be broken in pieces. Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought;speak the word, and it shall not stand, for God is with us" (Isa 8:8-10); Godwill over-match and go beyond you.
Wherefore this word, breadth, and what is the breadth: It is here expressed on purposeto succour and relieve, or to shew what advantage, for support, the knowledge ofthe overspreading grace of God by Christ yieldeth unto those that have it, let theirtrials be what they will. Alas! the sin of God's children seemeth sometimes to overspreadnot only their flesh, and the face of their souls, but the whole face of heaven.And what shall he do now, that is a stranger to this breadth, made mention of inthe text? Why he must despair, lie down and die, and shut up his heart against allcomfort, unless he, with his fellow-christians, can, at least, apprehend what isthis breadth, or the breadth of mercy intended in this place. Therefore Paul forthe support of the Ephesians, prays, that they may know "what is the breadth."
This largeness of the heart and mercy of God towards his people, is also signifiedby the spreading out of his hand to us in the invitations of the gospel. "Isaid," saith he, "Behold me, behold me, - - - I have spread out my handsall the day unto a rebellious people. - - - to a people that provoketh me continually"(Isa 65:1-3).
I have spread out my hands, that is, opened my arms as a mother affectionately doth,when she stoopeth to her child in the warm workings of her bowels, and claspeth itup in them, and kisseth, and putteth it into her bosom.
For, by spreading out the hands or arms to embrace, is shewed the breadth or largenessof God's affections; as by our spreading out our hands in prayer, is signified thegreat sense that we have of the spreading nature of our sins, and of the great desiresthat are in us, that God would be merciful to us (Ezra 9:5-7).
This word also answereth to, or may fitly be set against the wiles and temptationsof the devil, who is that great and dogged Leviathan, that spreadeth his "sharp-pointedthings upon the mire" (Job 41:30): For, be the spreading nature of our corruptionsnever so broad, he will find sharp-pointed things enough to stick in the mire ofthem, for our affliction. These sharp-pointed things are those that in another placeare called "fiery darts" (Eph 6:16), and he has abundance of them, withwhich he can and will sorely prick and wound our spirits: Yea, so sharp some havefound these things to their souls, that they have pierced beyond expression. "When,"said Job, "I say, my bed shall comfort me, my couch shall ease my complaint;then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me through visions; so that my soulchooseth strangling, and death rather than my life" (Job 7:13-15). But now,answerable to the spreading of these sharp-pointed things, there is a super-aboundingbreadth in the sovereign grace of God, the which whoso seeth and understandeth, asthe Apostle doth pray we should, is presently helped: for he seeth that this gracespreadeth itself, and is broader than can be, either our mire, or the sharp-pointedthings that he spreadeth thereupon for our vexation and affliction: "It is broaderthan the sea" (Job 11:9).
This therefore should be that upon which those that see the spreading nature of sin,and the leprosy and contagion thereof, should meditate, to wit, The broadness ofthe grace and mercy of God in Christ. This will poise and stay the soul; this willrelieve and support the soul in and under those many misgiving and desponding thoughtsunto which we are subject when afflicted with the apprehensions of sin, and the aboundingnature of it.
Shall another man pray for this, one that knew the goodness and benefit of it, andshall not I meditate upon it? and shall not I exercise my mind about it? Yes surely,for it is my duty, it is my privilege and mercy so to do. Let this therefore, whenthou seest the spreading nature of thy sin be a memento to thee, to the end thoumayest not sink and die in thy soul.
Secondly, What is the breadth and LENGTH. As there is a breadth in this mercy andgrace of God by Christ, so there is a LENGTH therein, and this length is as largeas the breadth, and as much suiting the condition of the child of God, as the otheris. For, though sin sometimes is most afflicting to the conscience, while the soulbeholdeth the overspreading nature of it, yet here it stoppeth not, but oft-timesthrough the power and prevalency of it, the soul is driven with it, as a ship bya mighty tempest, or as a rolling thing before the whirlwind: driven, I say, fromGod, and from all hopes of his mercy, as far as the east is from the west, or asthe ends of the world are asunder. Hence it is supposed by the prophet, that forand by sin they may be driven from God to the utmost part of heaven (Deu 30:4); andthat is a sad thing, a sad thing, I say, to a gracious man. "Why," saiththe prophet to God, "Art thou so far from helping me, and from the words ofmy roaring?" (Psa 22:1). Sometimes a man, yea, a man of God, is, as he apprehends,so far off from God, that he can neither help him, nor hear him, and this is a dismalstate. "And thou hast removed my soul," said the church, "far offfrom peace: I forgat prosperity" (Lam 3:17). This is the state sometimes ofthe godly, and that not only with reference to their being removed by persecutors,from the appointments and gospel-seasons, which are their delight, and the desireof their eyes; but also with reverence to their faith and hope in their God. Theythink themselves beyond the reach of his mercy. Wherefore in answer to this conceitit is, that the Lord asketh, saying, "Is my hand shortened at all that it cannotredeem?" (Isa 50:2). And again, "Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened,that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear" (Isa 59:1).Wherefore he saith again, "If any of them be driven out unto the outmost partsof heaven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather thee, and from thence will hefetch thee" (Deu 30:4). God has a long arm, and he can reach a great way furtherthan we can conceive he can (Neh 1:9): When we think his mercy is clean gone, andthat ourselves are free among the dead, and of the number that he remembereth nomore, then he can reach us, and cause that again we stand before him. He could reachJonah, tho" in the belly of hell (Jonah 2); and reach thee, even then, whenthou thinkest thy way is hid from the Lord, and thy judgment passed over from thyGod. There is length to admiration, beyond apprehension or belief, in the arm ofthe strength of the Lord; and this is that which the Apostle intended by this word,Length; namely, To insinuate what a reach there is in the mercy of God, how far itcan extend itself. "If I take the wings of the morning," said David, "anddwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; even there shall thy hand lead me, and thyright hand shall hold me" (Psa 139:9,10). I will gather them from the east,and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, saith he: That is, fromthe utmost corners.
This therefore should encourage them that for the present cannot stand, but thatdo fly before their guilt: Them that feel no help nor stay, but that go, as to theirthinking, every day by the power of temptation, driven yet farther off from God,and from the hope of obtaining of his mercy to their salvation; poor creature, Iwill not now ask thee how thou camest into this condition, or how long this has beenthy state; but I will say before thee, and I prithee hear me, O the length of thesaving arm of God! As yet thou art within the reach thereof; do not thou go aboutto measure arms with God, as some good men are apt to do: I mean, do not thou conclude,that because thou canst not reach God by thy short stump, therefore he cannot reachthee with his long arm. Look again, "Hast thou an arm like God" (Job 40:9),an arm like his for length and strength? It becomes thee, when thou canst not perceivethat God is within the reach of thy arm, then to believe that thou art within thereach of his; for it is long, and none knows how long.
Again, is there such a length? such a length in the arm of the Lord, that he canreach those that are gone away, as far as they could? then this should encourageus to pray, and hope for the salvation of any one of our backslidden relations, thatGod would reach out his arm after them: Saying, "Awake, - - O arm of the Lord,- art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon? Art thou not it whichhath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of thesea a way for the ransomed to pass over?" (Isa 51:9,10). Awake, O arm of theLord, and be stretched out as far as to where my poor husband is, where my poor child,or to where my poor backslidden wife or dear relation is, and lay hold, fast hold;they are gone from thee, but, O thou the hope of Israel, fetch them again, and letthem stand before thee. I say, here is in this word LENGTH matter of encouragementfor us thus to pray; for if the length of the reach of mercy is so great, and ifalso this length is for the benefit of those that may be gone off far from God, (forthey at present have no need thereof that are near) then improve this advantage atthe throne of grace for such, that they may come to God again. Thirdly, As thereis a breadth and length here, so there is a DEPTH. What is the breadth, and length,and depth? And this depth is also put in here, on purpose to help us under a trialthat is diverse from the two former. I told you, that by the breadth the Apostleinsinuates a remedy and succour to us, when we see our corruptions spread like aleprosy; and by length he would shew us, that when sin has driven God's elect tothe farthest distance from him, yet his arm is long enough to reach them, and fetchthem back again.
But, I say, as we have here a breadth, and a length, so we have also a depth. Thatye may know what is the DEPTH. Christians have sometimes their sinking fits, andare as if they were always descending: or as Heman says, "counted with themthat go down into the pit" (Psa 88:4). Now guilt is not to such so much a windand a tempest, as a load and burden. The devil, and sin, and the curse of the law,and death, are gotten upon the shoulders of this poor man, and are treading of himdown, that he may sink into, and be swallowed up of his miry place.
"I sink," says David, "in deep mire, where there is no standing. Iam come into DEEP waters, where the floods overflow me" (Psa 69:2). Yea, thereis nothing more common among the saints of old, than this complaint: "Let neitherthe water flood overflow me, neither let the deep swallow me up, neither let thepit shut her mouth upon me" (Psa 69:14,15). Heman also saith, "Thou hastlaid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deeps. Thy wrath lieth hard upon me,and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves" (Psa 88:6,7). Hence it is againthat the Psalmist says: "Deep calleth unto deep, at the noise of thy water spouts:all thy waves, and thy billows are gone over me" (Psa 42:7). Deep calleth untodeep: What's that? Why, it is expressed in the verse before: "O God," sayshe, "My soul is cast down within me." "Down," that is, deep intothe jaws of distrust and fear. And, Lord, my soul in this depth of sorrow calls forhelp to thy depth of mercy. For though I am sinking and going down, yet not so low,but that thy mercy is yet underneath me: Do of thy compassions open those everlastingarms (Deu 33:27), and catch him that has no help or stay in himself: For so it iswith one that is falling into a well or a dungeon.
Now mark, as there is in these texts, the sinking condition of the godly man setforth, of a man whom sin and Satan is treading down into the deep; so in our textwhich I am speaking to at this time, we have a depth that can more than counterpoisethese deeps, set forth with a hearty prayer, that we may know it. And although thedeeps, or depths of calamity into which the godly may fall, may be as deep as Hell,and methinks they should be no deeper: yet this is the comfort, and for the comfortof them of the godly that are thus a sinking: The mercy of God for them lies deeper"It is deeper than hell, what canst thou know?" (Job 11:8). And this isthat which made Paul that he was not afraid of this depth, "I am persuaded,"saith he, "that neither - - height nor depth shall be able to separate us fromthe love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord" (Rom 8:38,39). But of thishe could by no means have been persuaded, had he not believed that mercy lieth deeperfor the godly to help them, than can all other depths be to destroy them: This isit at which he stands and wonders, saying, "O the depth of the riches both ofthe wisdom and knowledge of God" (Rom 11:33), that is to find out a way to savehis people, notwithstanding all the deep contrivances that the enemy hath, and mayinvent to make us come short [of] home.
This is also that, as I take it, which is wrapped up in the blessing, wherewith Jacobblessed his son Joseph. "God shall bless thee," saith he, "with blessingsof heaven above," and with the "blessings of the deep that lieth under"(Gen 49:25). A blessing which he had ground to pronounce, as well from his observationof God's good dealing with Joseph, as in a spirit of prophecy: For he saw that helived and was become a flourishing bough, by a wall, after that the archers had donetheir worst to him (Gen 49:22-24). Moses also blesseth God for blessing of Josephthus, and blessed his portion to him, as counting of it sufficient for his help inall afflictions. "Blessed," saith he, "of the Lord, be his land, forthe precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that coucheth beneath"(Deu 33:13).
I am not of belief that these blessings are confined to things temporal, or carnal,but to things spiritual and divine; and that they have most chiefly respect to soul,and eternal good. Now mark, he tells us here, that the blessings of the deep, docouch beneath. Couch, that is, lie close, so as hardly to be discerned by him thatwillingly would see that himself is not below these arms that are beneath him. Butthat as I said, is hard to be discerned by him that thus is sinking, and that hasas he now smartingly feels, all God's waves, and his billows rolling over him. However,whether he sees or not, for this blessing lieth couched; yet there it is, and therewill be, though one should sink as deep as hell: And hence they are said to be "everlastingarms" that are "underneath" (Deu 33:27): That is, arms that are longand strong, and that can reach to the bottom, and also beyond, of all misery anddistress, that Christians are subject to in this life. Indeed mercy seems to be asleep,when we are sinking: for then we are as if all things were careless of us, but itis but as a lion couchant, it will awake in time for our help (Psa 44:22,26, Mark4:36-39). And forasmuch as this term is it, which is applicable to the lion in hisden; it may be to shew that as a lion, so will God at the fittest season, arise forthe help and deliverance of a sinking people. Hence when he is said to address himselfto the delivering of his people, it is that he comes as a roaring lion. "TheLord shall go forth as a mighty man, he shall stir up jealousy like a man of war:he shall cry, yea, roar; he shall prevail against his enemies" (Isa 42:13).However here is a depth against the depth that's against us, let that depth be whatit will. As let it be the depth of misery, the depth of mercy is sufficient. If itbe the depth of hellish policy, the depth both of the wisdom and knowledge of Godshall go beyond it, and prevail.
This therefore is worthy of the consideration of all sinking souls; of the soulsthat feel themselves descending into the pit. There is such a thing as this experiencedamong the godly. Some come to them (when tempted) when you will, they will tell you,they have no ground to stand on, their feet have slipped, their foundation is removed,and they fell themselves sinking, as into a pit that has no bottom (Psa 11:3). Theyinwardly sink, not for want of something to relieve the body, but for want of somespiritual cordial to support the mind. "I went down to the bottoms of the mountains,"said Jonah, "the earth with her bars was about me for ever; - - - my soul faintedwithin me" (Jonah 2:6,7).
Now for such to consider that underneath them, even at the bottom there lieth a blessing,or that in this deep whereinto they are descending, there lieth a delivering mercycouching to catch them, and to save them from sinking for ever, this would be reliefunto them, and help them to hope for good.
Again, As this, were it well considered by the sinking ones, would yield them stayand relief, so this is it by the virtue whereof, they that have been sinking heretofore,have been lifted up, and above their castings down again. There are of those thathave been in the pit, now upon mount Sion, with the harps of God in their hands,and with the song of the Lamb in their mouths. But how is it that they are there?why, David, by his own deliverance shews you the reason. "For great is thy mercytowards me," saith he, "and thou hast delivered my soul from the lowesthell" (Psa 86:13). And again, "He brought me up also out of an horriblepit," (a pit of noise, a pit wherein was the noise of devils, and of my heartanswering them with distrust and fear) "out of the miry clay," (into whichI did not only sink, but was by it held from getting up: but he brought me up) "andset my feet upon a rock, and established my goings. And he hath put a new song inmy mouth, even praise to our God" (Psa 40:2,3).
But let me here give, if it may be, a timely caution to them that think they standupon their feet. Give not way to falling because everlasting arms are underneath,take heed of that: God can let thee fall into mischief, he can let thee fall, andnot help thee up. Tempt not God, lest he cast thee away indeed. I doubt there aremany that have presumed upon this mercy, that thus do couch beneath, and have castthemselves down from their pinnacles into vanity, of a vain conceit that they shallbe lifted up again: whom yet God will leave to die there, because their fall wasrather of willfulness, than weakness, and of stubbornness, and desperate resolutions,than for want of means and helps to preserve them from it.
Fourthly, As there is a breadth, and length, and depth, in this mercy and grace ofGod through Christ towards his people: So there is also a HEIGHT, "That ye maycomprehend with all saints, what is the breadth and length, and depth, and HEIGHT."There are things that are high, as well as things that are low; things that are aboveus, as well as things that are under, that are distressing to God's people. It issaid when Noah was a preacher of righteousness, there were giants in the earth inthose days (Gen 6:4). And these, as I conceive, were some of the heights that wereset against Noah; yea, they were the very dads and fathers of all that monstrousbrood that followed in the world in that day. Of this sort were they who so frighted,and terrified Israel, when they were to go to inherit the land of promise. The menthat were tall as cedars, and strong as the oaks, frighted them: they were in theirown sight, when compared with these high ones, but as grasshoppers. This thereforewas their discouragement (Num 13:31-33, Deu 2:10, 9:2).
Besides, together with these, they had high walls, walls as high as heaven; and thesewalls were of purpose to keep Israel out of his possession. See how it is expressed:The people is greater and taller than we, the cities are great and walled up to heaven:and moreover, we have seen the sons of the Anakims there (Deu 1:28). One of these,to wit, Goliath by name, how did he fright the children of Israel in the days ofSaul! How did the appearance of him, make them scuttle together on heaps before him(1 Sam 17). By these giants, and by these high walls, God's children to this dayare sorely distressed, because they stand in the cross ways to cut off Israel fromhis possession.
But now to support us against all these, and to encourage us to take heart notwithstandingall these things; there is for us, a height in God. He hath made his Son higher thanthe kings of the earth (Psa 89:26-28): His word also is settled for ever in heaven,and therefore must needs be higher than their walls (Psa 119:89): He also saith inanother place, "If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent pervertingof judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter; for he that is higherthan the highest, regardeth, and there be higher than they" (Eccl 5:8). 'Twasthis that made Paul, that he feared not the height: not things present, nor thingsto come (Rom 8:39).
But again, As there are these things standing, or lying in our way: So there areanother sort of heights that are more mischievous than these: And they are the fallenangels. These are called spiritual wickedness, or wicked spirits, in high places(Eph 6:12): For God has suffered them for a time to take to themselves principalityand power, and so they are become the rulers of the darkness of this world. By thesewe are tempted, sifted, threatened, opposed, undermined: also by these there aresnares, pits, holes, and what not made and laid for us, if peradventure by somethingwe may be destroyed. Yea, and we should most certainly be so, were it not for therock that is higher than they. "But he that cometh from heaven is above all!"(John 3:31) These are they that our king has taken captive, and hath rid (in hischariots of salvation) in triumph over their necks. These are they, together withall others, whose most devilish designs he can wield, and turn and make work togetherfor his ransomed's advantage (Rom 8:28), There is a height, an infinitely overtoppingheight in the mercy and goodness of God for us, against them.
There are heights also that build up themselves in us, which are not but to be takennotice of: Yea, there are a many of them, and they place themselves directly so,that if possible they may keep the saving knowledge of God out of our hearts. Thesehigh things therefore are said to exalt themselves against the knowledge of God (2Cor 10:5): and do ofttimes more plague, afflict, and frighten Christian men and women,than any thing besides. It is from these that our faith and spiritual understandingof God and his Christ is opposed and contradicted, and from these also that we areso inclinable to swerve from right doctrine into destructive opinions. 'Tis fromthese that we are so easily persuaded to call into question our former experienceof the goodness of God towards us, and from these that our minds are so often cloudedand darkened that we cannot see afar off. These would betray us into the hands offallen angels, and men, nor should we by any means help or deliver ourselves, wereit not for one that is higher. These are the dark mountains at which our feet wouldcertainly stumble, and upon which we should fall, were it not for one who can leapand skip over these mountains of division, and come in to us (Song 2:8,17).
Further, There is a height also that is obvious to our senses, the which when itis dealt withal by our corrupted reason, proves a great shaking to our mind, andthat is the height, and exceeding distance that heaven is off of us, and we off it."Is not God in the height of heaven? and behold the height of the stars, howhigh they are?" (Job 22:12) Hence heaven is called the place for height (Prov25:3), Also when Ahaz is bid to ask with reference to heaven, he is bid to ask it,In the height, the height above (Isa 7:11). Now saith reason, how shall I come thither?especially when a good man is at his furthest distance therefore: which is, whenhe is in the grave. Now I say, every height is a difficulty to him that is loadenwith a burden, especially the heaven of heavens, where God is, and where is the resting-placeof his, to them that are oppressed with the guilt of sin. And besides, the dispensationwhich happeneth to us last, to wit, death, as I said before, makes this heaven, inmy thoughts while I live so much the more unaccessible. Christ indeed could mountup (Acts 1:9), but me, poor me, how shall I get thither? Elias indeed had a chariotsent him to ride in thither, and went up by it into that holy place (2 Kings 2:11):but I, poor I, how shall I get thither? Enoch is there, because God took him (Gen5:24), but as for me, how shall I get thither? Thus some have mourningly said. Andalthough distrust of the power of God, as to the accomplishing of this thing, isby no means to be smiled upon, yet methinks the unconcernedness of professors thereabout,doth argue that considering thoughts about that, are wanting.
I know the answer is ready. Get Christ and go to heaven. But methinks the heightof the place, and the glory of the state that we are to enjoy therein, should a littleconcern us, at least so as to make us wonder in our thinking, that the time is comingthat we must mount up thither. And since there are so many heights between this place,between us, and that; it should make us admire at the heights of the grace and mercyof God, by which, means is provided to bring us thither. And I believe that thisthing, this very thing, is included here by the Apostle when he prays for the Ephesians,that they might know the height.
Methinks, How shall we get thither will still stick in my mind. "I will ascend,"says one, "above the height of the clouds, I will be like the most High"(Isa 14:14). And I, says another, will set my nest among the stars of heaven (Oba4). Well, but what of all this? If heaven has gates, and they shall be shut, howwilt thou go in thither? Though such should climb up to heaven, from thence willGod bring them down (Amos 9:2), Still I say, therefore, how shall we get in thither?Why, for them that are godly, there is the power of God, the merits of Christ, thehelp of angels, and the testimony of a good conscience to bring them thither; andhe that has not the help of all these, let him do what he can, shall never come thither.Not that all these go to the making up of the height that is intended in the text:for the height there, is what is in God through Christ to us alone. But the angelsare the servants of God for that end (Luke 16:22, Heb 1:14): and none with ill consciencesenter in thither (Psa 15:1, 24:3,4), What, "know ye not that the unrighteousshall not inherit the kingdom of God? be not deceived" (1 Cor 6:9), such havenone inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God (Eph 5:5).
This then should teach us that in God is a power that is able to subdue all thingsto himself. In the completing of many things, there seems to be an utter impossibility,as that a virgin should conceive in her womb, as a virgin, and bring a Son into theworld; that the body that is turned into dust, should arise and ascend into the highestheaven (Phil 3:21). These things with many more seem to be utterly impossible: butthere is that which is called the power of God, by the which he is able to make allthings bend to his will, and to make all obstructions give place to what he pleases.God is high above all things and can do whatever it pleaseth him. But since he cando so, why doth he suffer this, and that thing to appear, to act, and do so horriblyrepugnant to his word? I answer, he admits of many things, to the end he may shewhis wrath, and make his power known; and that all the world may see how he checksand overrules the most vile and unruly things, and can make them subservient to hisholy will. And how would the breadth and the length, and the depth, and the heightof the love and mercy of God in Christ to us-ward, be made to appear, so as in allthings it doth, were there not admitted that there should be breadths, and lengths,and depths and heights, to oppose. Wherefore these oppositions are therefore suffered,that the greatness of the wisdom, the power, the mercy, and grace of God to us inChrist might appear and be made manifest unto us.
This calls therefore upon Christians, wisely to consider of the doings of their God.How many opposite breadths, and lengths, and depths, and heights did Israel meetwith in their journey from Egypt to Canaan, and all to convince them of their ownweakness, and also of the power of their God. And they that did wisely consider ofhis doings there, did reap the advantage thereof. Come, behold the works of the Lordtowards me, may every Christian say. He hath set a Saviour against sin; a heavenagainst a hell; light against darkness; good against evil, and the breadth, and length,and depth, and height of the grace that is in himself, for my good, against all thepower, and strength, and force, and subtilty, of every enemy.
This also, as I hinted but just before, shews both the power of them that hate us,and the inability of us to resist. The power that is set against us none can crush,and break, but God: for it is the power of devils, of sin, of death, and hell. Butwe for our parts are crushed before the moth: being a shadow, a vapour, and a windthat passes away (Job 4:19). Oh! how should we, and how would we, were but our eyesawake, stand and wonder at the preservations, the deliverances, the salvations andbenefits with which we are surrounded daily: while so many mighty evils seek dailyto swallow us up, as the grave. See how the golden psalm of David reads it. "Bemerciful unto me, O God; for man would swallow me up; he fighting daily oppressethme. Mine enemies would daily swallow me up: for they be many that fight against me,O thou most high" (Psa 56:1,2). This is at the beginning of it. And he concludesit thus, "Thou hast delivered my soul from death: will not thou deliver my feetfrom falling, that I may walk before God in the light of the living" (verse13).
By this also we see the reason why it is so impossible for man or angel to persuadeunbelievers to come in to, and close with Christ; why there is a breadth that theycannot get over, a length that they cannot get beyond, a depth that they cannot pass,and heights that so hinder them of the prospect of glory, and the way thereto, thatthey cannot be allured thither. And that nothing can remove these; but those thatare in God, and that are opposite thereto; even the breadth, and length, and depthand height that is in the text expressed, is to all awakened men an undoubted truth.
One item I would here give to him that loveth his own soul, and then we will passon in pursuance of what is to come. Since there is an height obvious to sense, andthat that height must be overcome ere a man can enter into life eternal: let thyheart be careful that thou go the right way to overpass this height, that thou mayestnot miss of the delectable plains, and the pleasures that are above. Now, there isnothing so high, as to overtop this height; but Jacob's ladder, and that can do it:that ladder, when the foot thereof doth stand upon the earth, reacheth with its topto the gate of heaven. This is the ladder by which angels ascend thither: and thisis the ladder by which thou mayest ascend thither. "And he dreamed, and beholda ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold theangels of God ascending and descending on it" (Gen 28:12).
This ladder is Jesus Christ, the son of man, as is clear by the evangelist John (John1:51). And in that it is said to stand upon the earth, that is to shew that he tookhold of man who is of the earth, and therein laid a foundation for his salvation:in that it is said the top reached up to heaven, that is to shew that the divinenature was joined to the human, and by that means he was every way made a Saviourcomplete. Now concerning this ladder, 'tis said, Heaven was open where it stood,to shew that by him there is entrance into life: 'tis said also concerning this ladder,that the Lord stood there, at the top, above it: saying, "I am the Lord Godof Abraham" (Gen 28:13), to shew his hearty and willing reception of those thatascend the height of his sanctuary this way. All which Christ further explains bysaying, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life, no man cometh unto the father,but by me" (John 14:6). Look to thyself then, that thou do truly and after theright manner embrace this ladder, so will he draw thee up thither after him (John12:32). All the rounds of this ladder are sound and fitly placed, not one of themis set further than that by faith thou mayest ascend step by step unto, even untilthou shalt come to the highest step thereof, from whence, or by which thou mayeststep in at the celestial gate where thy soul desireth to dwell.
Take my caution then, and be wary, no man can come thither but by him. Thither Isay to be accepted: thither, there to dwell, and there to abide with joy for ever.
"That ye - - - may be able to comprehend with all saints, what is the breadth,and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge."
Having thus spoke of the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, that is in God'smercy by Christ to us-ward; we will now come more directly to
THE PRAYER OF THE APOSTLE FOR THESE EPHESIANS, WITH REFERENCE THEREUNTO; to wit,that they might be able to comprehend with all saints what they are. And
FIRST, As to THE ABILITY that he prays for, to the end that they may be capable todo this thing.
First, That ye may be able. The weakness that is here supposed to hinder their thuscomprehending, &c., did doubtless lie in their grace, as well as their nature:for in both, with reference to them that are Christians, there is great disability,unless they be strengthened mightily by the Holy Ghost. Nature's ability dependsupon graces, and the ability of graces, depends upon the mighty help of the spiritof God. Hence as nature itself, where grace is not, sees nothing; so nature by gracesees but weakly, if that grace is not strengthened with all might by the spirit ofgrace. The breadths, lengths, depths and heights here made mention of, are mysteries,and in all their operations, do work wonderfully mysteriously: insomuch that manytimes, though they are all of them busily engaged for this and the other child ofGod, yet they themselves see nothing of them. As Christ said to Peter, "WhatI do thou knowest not now" (John 13:7); so may it be said to many where thegrace and mercy of God in Christ is working: they do not know, they understand notwhat it is, nor what will be the end of such dispensations of God towards them. Whereforethey also say as Peter to Christ, "Dost thou wash my feet? - - thou shalt neverwash my feet" (John 13:6-8); Yea, and when some light to convince of this follybreaks in upon them, yet if it be not very distinct and clear; causing the personto know the true cause, nature, and end of God's doing of this or that, they swervewith Peter, as much on the other side (John 13:9,10). They have not known my ways,and my methods with them in this world, were that that caused Israel always to errin their hearts (Heb 3:10), and lie cross to all, and each of these breadths, lengths,depths, and heights, whenever they were under the exercise of any of them in thewilderness.
And the reason is, as I said before, for that they are very mysterious in their workings.For they work by, upon, and against oppositions; for, and in order to the help andsalvation of his people. Also (as was hinted a while since) that the power and gloryof this breadth, and length, &c. of the mercy and grace of God, may the moreshew its excellency and sufficiency as to our deliverance; we by him seem quite tobe delivered up to the breadths, lengths, and depths, and heights that oppose, andthat utterly seek our ruin: wherefore at such times, nothing of breadths, lengths,depths, or heights can be seen, save by those that are very well skilled in thosemysterious methods of God, in his gracious actings towards his people. "Whowill bring me into the strong city," and "wilt not thou, O God, which hadstcast us off? and thou, O God, which didst not go out with our armies?" (Psa60:9,10) is a lesson too hard for every Christian man to say over believingly. Andwhat was it that made Jonah say, when he was in the belly of hell, "Yet I willlook again toward thy holy temple" (Jonah 2:4), but the good skill that he hadin understanding of the mystery of these breadths, and lengths, and depths, and heightsof God, and of the way of his working by them. Read the text at large. "Thouhadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas, and the floods compassed meabout. All thy billows and thy waves passed over me. Then I said, I am cast out ofthy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple" (Jonah 2:3,4).
These, and such like sentences, are easily played with by a preacher, when in thepulpit, specially if he has a little of the notion of things, but of the difficultyand strait, that those are brought into, out of whose mouth such things, or wordsare extorted, by reason of the force of the labyrinths they are fallen into: of thosethey experience nothing, wherefore to those they are utterly strangers.
He then that is able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length,and depth, and height; must be a good expositor of providences, and must see theway, and the workings of God by them. Now there are providences of two sorts, seeminglygood, and seemingly bad, and those do usually as Jacob did, when he blessed the sonsof Joseph, cross hands; and lay the blessing where we would not. "And when Josephsaw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him"(Gen 48:17). I say there are providences unto which we would have the blessings entailed,but they are not. And they are providences that smile upon the flesh; to wit, suchas cast into the lap, health, wealth, plenty, ease, friends, and abundance of thisworld's good: because these, [Manasseh, as his name doth signify,] have in them anaptness to make us forget our toil, our low estate, and from whence we were (Gen41:51): but the great blessing is not in them. There are providences again, thattake away from us whatever is desirable to the flesh; such is the sickness, losses,crosses, persecution and affliction; and usually in these though they make us shuck whenever they come upon us, blessing coucheth, and is ready to help us. For God,as the name of Ephraim signifies, makes us "fruitful in the land of our affliction"(Gen 41:52). He therefore, in blessing of his people, lays his hands across, guidingthem wittingly, and laying the chiefest blessing on the head of Ephraim, or in thatprovidence, that sanctifies affliction. Abel! what, to the reason of Eve was he,in comparison of Cain. Rachel called Benjamin the son of her sorrow: but Jacob knewhow to give him a better name (Gen 35:18). Jabez also, though his mother so calledhim, because, as it seems, she brought him forth with more than ordinary sorrow,was yet more honourable, more godly, than his brethren (1 Chron 4:9,10). He thathas skill to judge of providences aright, has a great ability in him to comprehendwith other saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height: but hethat has not skill as to discerning of them, is but a child in his judgment in thosehigh and mysterious things. And hence it is, that some shall suck honey out of that,at the which others tremble for fear it should poison them, I have often been madeto say, "Sorrow is better than laughter; and the house of mourning better thanthe house of mirth" (Eccl 7:3-5). And I have more often seen, that the afflictedare always the best sort of Christians. There is a man, never well, never prospering,never but under afflictions, disappointments and sorrows: why this man, if he bea Christian, is one of the best of men. "They that go down to the sea, - - thatdo business in great waters, these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders inthe deep."  (Psa 107:23,24) And it is from hence, for aught I know, thatJames admonishes the brother of high degree to rejoice in that he is made low. Andhe renders the reason of it, to wit, for that the fashion of the world perisheth,the rich man fadeth away in his way; but the tempted, and he that endureth temptationis blessed (James 1:10-12). Now, I know these things are not excellent in themselves,nor yet to be desired for any profit that they can yield, but God doth use by these,as by a tutor or instructor, to make known to them that are exercised with them,so much of himself as to make them understand that riches of his goodness that isseldom by other means broken up to the sons of men. And hence 'tis said, that theafterwards of affliction doth yield the peaceable fruits of righteousness unto themwhich are exercised thereby (Heb 12:11).
The sum is, these breadths, and lengths, and depths, and heights of God, are to bediscerned; and some that are good, do more, and some do less discern them, and howthey are working, and putting forth themselves in every providence, in every change,in every turn of the wheel that passeth by us in this world. I do not question butthat there are some that are alive that have been able to say, the days of afflictionhave been the best unto them; and that could, if it were lawful, pray that they mightalways be in affliction, if God would but do to them as he did when his hand waslast upon them. For by them he caused his light to shine: Or as Job has it, "Thouhuntest me as a fierce lion: and again thou shewest thyself marvelously upon me"(Job 10:16). See also the writing of Hezekiah, and read what profit he found in afflictions(Isa 38).
But again, these breadths, lengths, depths, and heights, have in themselves naturallythat glory, that cannot be so well discerned, or kept in view by weak eyes. He hadneed have an eye like an eagle, that can look upon the sun, that can look upon thesegreat things, and not be stricken blind therewith. You see how Saul was served whenhe was going to Damascus (Acts 9): But Stephen could stand and look up steadfastlyinto heaven; and that too when with Jonah he was going into the deep (Acts 7). ButI have done with this, and proceed.
Second—That ye may be able to comprehend. Although apprehending is included in comprehending;yet to comprehend is more. To comprehend is to know a thing fully; or, to reach itall. But here we must distinguish, and say, that there is a comprehending that isabsolute, and a comprehending that is comparative. Of comprehending absolutely, orperfectly, we are not here to speak; for that the Apostle could not, in this place,as to the thing prayed for, desire: For it is utterly impossible perfectly to knowwhatsoever is in the breadths, lengths, depths, and heights here spoken of. Whetheryou call them mercies, judgments, or the ways of God with men. "How unsearchableare his judgments, and his ways past finding out!" (Rom 11:33) Or, if you takethem to signify his love, unto which you see I am inclined; why, that you read ofin the same place, to be it "which passes knowledge." Wherefore shouldthe Apostle by this term, conclude, or insinuate, that what he calls here breadths,lengths, depths, or heights, might be fully, or perfectly understood and known, hewould not only contradict other scriptures, but himself, in one and the self samebreath. Wherefore it must be understood comparatively; that is, and that he says,with, or as much as others, as any, even with all saints. That ye may be able tocomprehend with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height.I would ye were as able to understand, to know, and to find out these things, asever any were; and to know with the very best of saints, The love of Christ, whichpasseth knowledge. There are, as has before been hinted, degrees of knowledge ofthese things; some know more, some less; but the Apostle prays that these Ephesiansmight see, know, and understand as much thereof as the best, or as any under heaven.
1. And this, in the first place, shews us the love of a minister of Jesus Christ.A minister's love to his flock is seen in his praying for them: wherefore Paul, commonly,by his epistles, either first or last, or both, gives the churches to understand,That he did often heartily pray to God for them (Rom 16:20,24, 1 Cor 16:23, Gal 6:18,Eph 1:16, Phil 1:4, Col 1:3, 1 Thess 1:2, 1 Tim 6:21, 2 Tim 4:22): And not only so,but also specifies the mercies, and blessings, and benefits which he earnestly beggedfor them of God (2 Cor 13:7, 2 Thess 1:11).
2. But, secondly, This implies that there are great benefits accrued to Christiansby the comprehending of these things: Yea, it implies that something very specialis ministered to us by this knowledge of these; and here to touch upon a few of them.
(1.) He that shall arrive to some competent knowledge of these things, shall understandmore thoroughly the greatness, the wisdom, the power, &c. of the God that isabove. For by these expressions are the attributes of God set forth unto us: Andalthough I have discoursed of them hitherto under the notion of grace and mercy,yet it was not for that I concluded, they excluded the expressing of his other attributes,but because they all, as it were, turn into loving methods in the wheel of theirheavenly motion towards the children of God. Hence it is said, "God is love"(1 John 4:16), "God is light" (1 John 1:5), God is what He is for His ownglory, and the good of them that fear Him. God! Why God in the breadth, length, depth,height, that is here intended, comprehends the whole world (Col 1:17). The wholeworld is in him: for he is before, above, beyond, and round about all things. Henceit is said, The heavens for breadth, are but his span: That he gathereth the windin his fists (Prov 30:4): measureth the waters in the hollow of his hand, weigheththe mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance (Isa 40:12). Yea, that "allnations before him are as nothing, and they are counted to him less than nothing,and vanity" (verse 17). Hence we are said to live and move in him (Acts 17:28),and that He is beyond all search.
I will add one word more, notwithstanding there is such a revelation of Him in hisword, in the book of creatures, and in the book of providences; yet the scripturesays, "Lo, these are parts of his ways: but how little a portion is heard ofhim?" (Job 26:14) So great is God above all that we have read, heard, or seenof Him, either in the bible, in heaven, or earth, the sea, or what else is to beunderstood. But now, That a poor mortal, a lump of sinful flesh, or, as the scripture-phraseis, poor dust and ashes, should be in the favour, in the heart, and wrapped up inthe compassions of SUCH a God! O amazing! O astonishing consideration! And yet "ThisGod is our God for ever and ever; and He will be our guide even unto death"(Psa 48:14).
It is said of our God, "That he humbleth himself when he beholds things in heaven."How much more then when he openeth his eyes upon man; but most of all when he makesit, as one may say, his business to visit him every morning, and to try him everymoment, having set His heart upon him, being determined to set him also among hisprinces. "The Lord is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens.Who is like unto the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high, Who humbleth himself tobehold the things that are in heaven, and in the earth! He raiseth up the poor outof the dust, and lifteth the needy out of the dunghill; that he may set him withprinces, even with the princes of his people" (Psa 113:3-8).
(2.) IF this God be our God; or if our God be such a God, and could we but attainto that knowledge of the breadth, and length, and depth, and height that is in him,as the Apostle here prays, and desires we may, we should never be afraid of anythingwe shall meet with, or that shall assault us in this world. The great God, the formerof all things, taketh part with them that fear Him, and that engage themselves towalk in His ways, of love, and respect, they bear unto him; so that such may boldlysay, "The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me"(Heb 13:6). Would it not be amazing, should you see a man encompassed with chariotsand horses, and weapons for his defence, yet afraid of being sparrow blasted, orover-run by a grasshopper! Why "It is he that sitteth upon the circle of theearth, and" to whom "the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers"(Isa 40:22): that is the God of the people that are lovers of Jesus Christ; thereforewe should not fear them. To fear man, is to forget God; and to be careless in a timeof danger, is to forget God's ordinance. What is it then? Why, let us fear God, anddiligently keep his way, with what prudence and regard to our preservation, and alsothe preservation of what we have, we may: And if, we doing this, our God shall deliverus, and what we have, into the hands of them that hate us, let us laugh, be fearlessand careless, not minding now to do anything else but to stand up for Him againstthe workers of iniquity; fully concluding, that both we, and our enemies, are inthe hand of him that loveth his people, and that will certainly render a reward tothe wicked, after that he has sufficiently tried us by their means. "The greatGod that formed all things, both rewardeth the fool, and rewardeth transgressors"(Prov 26:10).
(3.) Another thing that the knowledge of what is prayed for of the Apostle, if weattain it, will minister to us, is, An holy fear and reverence of this great Godin our souls; both because he is great, and because he is wise and good (Jer 10:7)."Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name?" (Rev 15:4)
Greatness should beget fear, greatness should beget reverence: Now who so great asour God; and so, who to be feared like him! He also is wise, and will not be deceivedby any. "He will bring evil, and not call back his words, but will rise againstthe house of evil-doers, and against the help of them that work iniquity" (Isa31:2). Most men deal with God as if he were not wise; as if he either knew not thewickedness of their hearts and ways, or else knew not how to be even with them forit: When, alas! he is wise in heart, and mighty in power; and although he will not,without cause, afflict, yet he will not let wickedness go unpunished. This thereforeshould make us fear. He also is good, and this should make us serve him with fear.Oh! that a great God should be a good God; a good God to an unworthy, to an undeserving,and to a people that continually do what they can to provoke the eyes of his glory;this should make us tremble. He is fearful in service, fearful in praises.
The breadth, and length, and depth, and height of his out-going towards the childrenof men, should also beget in us a very great fear and dread of his majesty. Whenthe prophet saw the height of the wheels, he said they were dreadful (Eze 1:18),and cried out unto them, O wheel! (10:13). His judgments also are a great deep (Psa36:6); nor is there any "searching of his understanding" (Isa 40:28). Hecan tell how to bring his wheel upon us; and to make our table a snare, a trap, anda stumbling- block unto us (Isa 8:14, Rom 11:8-10). He can tell how to make his Sonto us a rock of offence, and his gospel to be a savour of death unto death, untous (2 Cor 2:15,16). He can tell how to choose delusions for us (Isa 66:4, 2 Thess2:11,12), and to lead us forth with the workers of iniquity (Psa 125:5), He can out-wit, and out-do us, and prevail against us for ever (Job 14:20); and therefore weshould be afraid and fear before Him, for our good, and the good of ours for ever:Yea, it is for these purposes, with others, that the Apostle prayeth thus for thispeople: For the comprehending of these things, do poise and keep the heart in aneven course. This yields comfort; this gives encouragement; this begets fear andreverence in our hearts of God.
(4.) This knowledge will make us willing that he should be our God; yea, will alsomake us abide by that willingness. Jacob said with a vow, "If God will be withme, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raimentto put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the Lordbe my God: And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house: andof all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee" (Gen28:20-22). Thus he considered the greatness of God, and from a supposition that hewas what he had heard him, of his father, to be; he concluded to choose him for hisGod, and that he would worship him, and give him that honour that was due to himas God. How did the king of Babylon set him above all gods, when but some sparklingrays from him did light upon him: he calls him "a God of gods" (Dan 2:47),prefers him above all gods, charges all people and nations that they do nothing amissagainst him (Dan 3:28,29): he calls him "the most high" God, the God "thatliveth for ever"; and confesses, that he doth whatsoever he will in heaven andearth; and concludes with praising and extolling of him (Dan 4). We naturally lovegreatness; and when the glorious beauty of the King of glory shall be manifest tous, and we shall behold it, we shall say as Joshua did; Let all men do as seems themgood; but I, and my house will serve the Lord (Josh 24:15).
When the Apostle Paul sought to win the Athenians to him, he sets Him forth beforethem with such terms as bespeaks his greatness; calling of him (and that rightly)"God that made the world, and all things: - - the Lord of heaven and earth;- - One that giveth to all life and breath, and all things"; One that is nighto every one; "he in whom we live, and move, and have our being": God thathath made of one blood all nations of men, and that hath determined the times beforeappointed, and the bounds of their habitation, &c. (Acts 17:24-28) These thingsbespeak the greatness of God, and are taking to considering men. Yea, these veryAthenians, while ignorant of him, from those dark hints that they had by naturallight concerning him, erected an altar to him, and put this singular inscriptionupon it, "To the unknown God": to shew, that according to their mode, theyhad some kind of reverence for him: but how much more when they came to know him?and to believe that God, in all his greatness, had engaged himself to be theirs;and to bring them to himself, that they might in time be partakers of his glory.
(5.) The more a man knows, or understands of the greatness of God towards him, expressedhere by the terms of unsearchable breadth, length, depth, and height; the betterwill he be able in his heart to conceive of the excellent glory and greatness ofthe things that are laid up in the heavens for them that fear him. They that knownothing of this greatness, know nothing of them; they that think amiss of this greatness,think amiss of them; they that know but little of this greatness, know but littleof them: But he that is able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, andlength, and depth, and height; he is best able to conceive of, and, consequentlyto make a judgment concerning the due worth, and blessed glory of them.
This is both evident to reason; also experience confirmeth the same. For, as forthose dark souls that know nothing of his greatness, they have in derision thosewho are, through the splendor of the glory, captivated and carried away after God.Also, those whose judgments are corrupted, and themselves thereby made as drunkards,to judge of things foolishly, they, as it were, step in the same steps with the other,and vainly imagine thereabout. Moreover, we shall see those little spirited Christians,though Christians indeed, that are but in a small measure acquainted with this God,with the breadths, and lengths, and depths, and heights that are in him, taken butlittle with the glory and blessedness that they are to go to when they die: whereforethey are neither so mortified to this world, so dead to sin, so self-denying, sodelighted in the book of God, nor so earnest in desires to be acquainted with theheights, and depths that are therein. No, this is reserved only for those who aredevoted thereto: who have been acquainted with God in a measure beyond that whichyour narrow-spirited Christians understand. There doth want as to these things, enlargingsin the hearts of the most of saints, as there did in those of Corinth, and also inthose at Ephesus: Wherefore, as Paul bids the one, and prays that the other may beenlarged, and have great knowledge thereabout: so we should, to answer such love,through desire, separate ourselves from terrene things that we may seek and intermeddlewith all wisdom (Prov 18:1). Christ says, "If any man will do his will, he shallknow of the doctrine" (John 7:17, Isa 28:9). Oh! that we were indeed enlargedas to these breadths, and lengths, and depths, and heights of God, as the Apostledesired the Ephesians might.
(6.) Then those great truths; the coming of Christ, the resurrection of the dead,and eternal judgment, would neither seem so like fables, nor be so much off our heartsas they do, and are (1 Cor 15:35). For the thorough belief of them depends upon theknowledge of the abilities that are in God to perform what he has said thereabout:And hence it is that your inferiour sort of Christians live so like, as if none ofthese things were at hand; and hence it is again, that they so soon are shaken inmind about them, when tempted of the devil, or briskly assaulted by deceivers. Butthis cometh to pass that there may be fulfilled what is written: "And whilethe bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept" (Matt 25:1-7). Surely,the meaning is, they were asleep about his coming, the resurrection and the judgment;and, consequently had lost much of that knowledge of God, the which if they had retained;these truths, with power, would have been upon their hearts. The Corinthians werehorribly decayed here, though some more than others: Hence Paul, when he treats ofthis doctrine, bids them "awake to righteousness," and not sin, tellingthem, that some among them had not the knowledge of God (1 Cor 15:34). To be sure,they had not such a knowledge of God as would keep them steady in the faith of thesethings (verse 51).
Now, the knowledge of the things above-mentioned, to wit, "this comprehendingknowledge"; will greaten these things, bring them near, and make them to becredited as are the greatest of God's truth: and the virtue of the faith of themis, to make one die daily. Therefore,
(7.) Another advantage that floweth from this knowledge, is, that it makes the nextworld desirable, not simply as it is with those lean souls, that desire it only asthe thief desireth the judge's favour, that he may be saved from the halter; butout of love such have to God and to the beauties of the house he dwells in; and thatthey may be rid of this world, which is to such as a dark dungeon. The knowledgeof God that men pretend they have, may easily be judged of, by the answerable orunanswerableness of their hearts and lives thereto. Where is the man that groansearnestly to be gone to God, that counts this life a strait unto him: that saithas a sick man of my acquaintance did, when his friend at his bed-side prayed to Godto spare his life, No, no, said he, pray not so; for it is better to be dissolvedand be gone. Christians should shew the world how they believe; not by words on paper,not by gay and flourishing notions (James 2:18): but by those desires they have tobe gone, and the proof that these desires are true, is a life in heaven while weare on earth (Phil 3:20,21). I know words are cheap, but a dram of grace is worthall the world. But where, as I said, shall it be found, not among carnal men, notamong weak Christians, but among those, and those only, that enjoy a great measureof Paul's wish here. But to come to the
SECOND PART OF THE TEXT.
AND TO KNOW THE LOVE OF CHRIST WHICH PASSETH KNOWLEDGE. These words are the secondpart of the text, and they deal mainly about the love of Christ, who is the Son ofGod. We have spoken already briefly of God, and therefore now we shall speak alsoof his Son. These words are a part of the prayer afore-mentioned, and have somethingof the same strain in them. In the first part, he prays that they might comprehendthat which cannot absolutely by any means be comprehended: and here he prays thatthat might be known, which yet in the same breath he saith, passeth knowledge, towit, the love of Christ. And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge.In the words we are to take notice of three things:
FIRST, Of the love of Christ.
SECOND, Of the exceeding greatness of it.
THIRD, Of the knowledge of it.
FIRST, We will begin with the first of these, to wit, Of the love of Christ. Nowfor the explication of this we must inquire into three things, First, Who Christis. Second, What love is. Third, What the love of Christ is.
First, Christ is a person of no less quality than he is of whom we treated before:to wit, very God. So I say, not titularly, not nominally, not so counterfeitly, butthe self-same in nature with the Father (John 1:1,2, 1 John 5:7, Phil 2:6). Whereforewhat we have under consideration, is so much the more to be taken notice of; namely,that a person so great, so high, so glorious, as this Jesus Christ was, should havelove for us, that passes knowledge. It is common for equals to love, and for superiorsto be beloved; but for the King of princes, for the Son of God, for Jesus Christto love man thus: this is amazing, and that so much the more, for that man the objectof this love, is so low, so mean, so vile, so undeserving, and so inconsiderable,as by the scriptures, everywhere he is described to be.
But to speak a little more particularly of this person. He is called God (John 1:1).The King of glory (Psa 24:10), and Lord of glory (1 Cor 2:8). The brightness of theglory of his Father (Heb 1:3). The head over all things (Eph 1:22). The Prince oflife (Acts 3:15). The Creator of all things (Col 1:16). The upholder of all things(Heb 1:3). The disposer of all things (Matt 28:18). The only beloved of the Father(Matt 11).
But the persons of him beloved, are called transgressors, sinners, enemies, dustand ashes, fleas (1 Sam 24:14), worms, shadows, vapours: vile, sinful, filthy, unclean,ungodly fools, madmen. And now is it not to be wondered at, and are we not to beaffected herewith, saying, And wilt thou set thine eye upon such an one? But howmuch more when He will set his heart upon us. And yet this great, this high, thisglorious person, verily, verily loveth such.
Second, We now come to the second thing, namely, to shew what is love; not in a wayof nice distinction of words, but in a plain and familiar discourse, yet respectingthe love of the person under consideration.
Love ought to be considered with reference to the subject as well as to the objectof it.
The subject of love in the text, is Christ; but forasmuch as love in him is diversefrom the love that is in us; therefore it will not be amiss, if a little [of] thedifference be made appear.
Love in us is a passion of the soul, and being such, is subject to ebb and flow,and to be extreme both ways. For whatever is a passion of the soul, whether loveor hatred, joy or fear, is more apt to exceed, or come short, than to keep withinits due bounds. Hence, oft-times that which is loved today is hated tomorrow (2 Sam13:15); yea, and that which should be loved with bounds of moderation, is loved tothe drowning of both soul and body in perdition and destruction (1 Tim 6:9,10).
Besides, love in us is apt to choose to itself undue and unlawful objects, and toreject those, that with leave of God, we may embrace and enjoy; so unruly, as tothe laws and rules of divine government, oft-times is this passion of love in us.
Love in us, requires, that something pleasing and delightful be in the object loved,at least, so it must appear to the lust and fancy of the person loving, or else lovecannot act; for the love that is in us, is not of power to set itself on work, whereno allurement is in the thing to be beloved.
Love in us decays, though once never so warm and strongly fixed, if the object fallsoff, as to its first alluring provocation; or disappointeth our expectation withsome unexpected reluctancy to our fancy or our mind.
All this we know to be true from nature, for every one of us are thus; nor can werefuse, or choose as to love, but upon, and after the rate, and the working thusof our passions. Wherefore our love, as we are natural, is weak, unorderly, failsand miscarries, either by being too much or too little; yea, though the thing whichis beloved be allowed for an object of love, both by the law of nature and grace.We therefore must put a vast difference betwixt love, as found in us, and love asfound in Christ, and that, both as to the nature, principle, or object of love.
Love in Christ is not love of the same nature, as is love in us; love in him is essentialto his being (1 John 4:16); but in us it is not so, as has been already shewed. Godis love; Christ is God; therefore Christ is love, love naturally. Love thereforeis essential to His being. He may as well cease to be, as cease to love. Hence thereforeit follows, that love in Christ floweth not from so low and beggarly a principle,as doth love in man; and consequently is not, nor can be attended with those infirmitiesor defects, that the love of man is attended with.
It is not attended with those unruly or uncertain motions that ours is attended with:here is no ebbing, no flowing, no going beyond, no coming short; and so nothing ofuncertainty. "Having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them untothe end" (John 13:1).
True, there is a way of manifesting of this love, which is suited to our capacities,as men, and by that we see it sometimes more, sometimes less (Song 7:11,12): alsoit is manifested to us as we do, or do not walk with God in this world (John 14:23).I speak now of saints.
Love in Christ pitcheth not itself upon undue or unlawful objects; nor refuseth toembrace what by the eternal covenant is made capable thereof. It always acteth accordingto God; nor is there at any time the least shadow of swerving as to this.
Love in Christ requireth no taking beauteousness in the object to be beloved, asnot being able to put forth itself without such attracting allurements (Eze 16:6-8).It can act of and from itself, without all such kind of dependencies. This is manifestto all who have the least true knowledge of what that object is in itself, on whichthe Lord Jesus has set his heart to love them.
Love in Christ decays not, nor can be tempted so to do by anything that happens,or that shall happen hereafter, in the object so beloved. But as this love at firstacts by, and from itself, so it continueth to do until all things that are imperfections,are completely and everlastingly subdued. The reason is, because Christ loves tomake us comely, not because we are so (Eze 16:9-14).
Object. But all along Christ compareth his love to ours; now, why doth he so, ifthey be so much alike?
Answer. Because we know not love but by the passions of love
that work in our hearts; wherefore he condescends to our capacities, and speakethof His love to us, according as we find love to work in ourselves to others. Hencehe sets forth his love to us, by borrowing from us instances of our love to wifeand children (Eph 5:25). Yea, he sometimes sets forth his love to us, by callingto our mind how sometimes a man loves a woman that is a whore, "Go," (saithGod to the prophet) "love a woman beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress,according to the word of the Lord toward the children of Israel, who look to othergods, and love flagons of wine." (Hosea 3:1) But then, these things must notbe understood with respect to the nature, but the dispensations and manifestationsof love; no, nor with reference to these neither, any further than by making useof such suitable similitudes, thereby to commend his love to us, and thereby to begetin us affections to him for the love bestowed upon us. Wherefore Christ's love mustbe considered both with respect to the essence, and also as to the divers workingsof it. For the essence thereof, it is as I said, natural with himself, and as such,it is the root and ground of all those actions of his, whereby he hath shewed thathimself is loving to sinful man. But now, though the love that is in him is essentialto his nature, and can vary no more than God himself: yet we see not this love butby the fruits of it, nor can it otherwise be discerned. "Hereby perceive wethe love of God, because he laid down his life for us" (1 John 3:16). We mustthen betake ourselves to the discoveries of this love, of which there are two sorts;[namely,] such as are the foundations, and such as are the consequences of thosefundamental acts. Those which I call the foundations, are they upon which all otherdiscoveries of his goodness depend, and they are two. 1. His dying for us. 2. Hisimproving of his death for us at the right hand of God.
Third, And this leads me to the third particular, to wit, to shew you what the loveof Christ is; namely, in the discovery of it. And to know the love of Christ.
The love of Christ is made known unto us, as I said, First, By his dying for us.Second, By his improving of his dying for us.
1. His dying for us appears, (1.) To be wonderful in itself. (2.) In his preparationsfor that work.
(1.) It appears to be wonderful in itself, and that both with respect to the natureof that death, as also, with respect to the persons for whom he so died.
The love of Christ appears to be wonderful by the death he died: In that he died,in that he died such a death. 'Twas strange love in Christ that moved him to diefor us: strange, because not according to the custom of the world. Men do not use,in cool blood, deliberately to come upon the stage or ladder, to lay down their livesfor others; but this did Jesus Christ, and that too for such, whose qualification,if it be duly considered, will make this act of his, far more amazing, He laid downhis life for his enemies (Rom 5), and for those that could not abide him; yea, forthose, even for those that brought him to the cross: not accidentally, or becauseit happened so, but knowingly, designedly, (Zech 12:10), he knew it was for thosehe died, and yet his love led him to lay down his life for them. I will add, Thatthose very people for whom he laid down his life, though they by all sorts of carriagesdid what they could to provoke him to pray to God his Father, that he would sendand cut them off by the flaming sword of angels (Matt 26:53), would not be provoked,but would lay down his life for them. Nor must I leave off here: We never read thatJesus Christ was more cheerful in all his life on earth, than when he was going tolay down his life for them, now he thanked God (Luke 22:19), now he sang (Matt 26:30).
But this is not all. He did not only die, but died such a death, as indeed cannotbe expressed. He was content to be counted the sinner: yea, to be counted the sinof the sinner, nor could this but be odious to so holy a Lamb as he was, yet willingto be this and thus for that love that he bare to men.
This being thus, it follows, that his sufferings must be inconceivable; for that,what in justice was the proper wages of sin and sinners, he must undergo; and whatthat was can no man so well know as he himself and damned spirits; for the properwages of sin, and of sinners for their sin, is that death which layeth pains, suchpains which it deserveth upon the man that dieth so: But Christ died so, and consequentlywas seized by those pains not only in body but in soul. His tears, his cries, hisbloody sweat (Luke 22:44), the hiding of his Father's face; yea, God's forsakingof him in his extremity (Matt 27:46), plainly enough declares the nature of the deathhe died (Mark 15:39). For my part, I stand amazed at those that would not have theworld believe, that the death of Jesus Christ was, in itself, so terrible as it was.
I will not stand here to discourse of the place called Hell, where the spirits ofthe damned are, we are discoursing of the nature of Christ's sufferings: and I say,if Christ was put into the very capacity of one that must suffer what in justiceought to be inflicted for sin; then, how we can so diminish the greatness of hissufferings, as some do, without undervaluing of the greatness of his love, I knownot; and how they will answer it, I know not. And on the contrary, what if I shouldsay, that the soul of Christ suffered as long as his body lay in the grave, and thatGod's loosing of the pains of death at Christ's resurrection, must not so much bemade mention of with reference to his body, as to his soul, if to his body at all.For what pain of death was his body capable of, when his soul was separate from it?(Acts 2:24) And yet God's loosing the pains of death, seems to be but an immediateantecedent to his rising from the dead. And this sense Peter doth indeed seem topursue, saying, "For David speaketh concerning him; I foresaw the Lord alwaysbefore my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. Thereforedid my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest inhope, because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thineholy one to see corruption" (Acts 2:25-27). This, saith Peter, was not spokenof David, but he being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath, thatof the fruit of his loins according to the flesh he would raise up Christ to siton his throne (verse 29,30): He seeing this before, spake of the resurrection ofChrist, that his soul was not left in hell, neither did his flesh see corruption(verse 31). "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell"; his soul was not leftin hell. Of what use are these expressions, if the soul of Christ suffered not, ifit suffered not when separated from the body? for of that time the Apostle Peterseems to treat. Besides, if it be not improper to say, that soul was not left there,that never was there, I am at a loss. Thou wilt not leave, his soul was not leftthere; ergo, It was there, seems to be the natural conclusion. If it be objected,that by hell is meant the grave, 'tis foolish to think that the soul of Christ laythere while his body lay dead therein. But again, the Apostle seems clearly to distinguishbetween the places where the soul and body of Christ was; counting his body to bein the grave, and his soul, for the time, in hell. If there be objected what wassaid by him to the thief upon the cross (Luke 23:43), I can answer, Christ mightspeak that with reference to his God-head, and if so, that lies as no objection towhat hath been insinuated. And why may not that be so understood, as well as wherehe said, when on earth, "The Son of man which is in heaven" (John 3:13),meaning himself. For the personality of the Son of God, call him Son of man, or whatother term is fitting, resideth not in the human, but divine nature of Jesus Christ.However, since hell is sometimes taken for the place (Acts 1:25), sometimes for thegrave, sometimes for the state (Psa 116:3), and sometimes but for a figure of theplace where the damned are tormented (Jonah 2:2); I will not strictly assign to Christthe place, the prison where the damned spirits are (1 Peter 3:19), but will say,as I said before, that he was put into the place of sinners, into the sins of sinners,and received what by justice was the proper wages of sin both in body and soul: Asis evident from that 53rd of Isaiah (verse 10,11). This soul of his I take to bethat which the inwards and the fat of the burnt sacrifices was a figure, or shadowof. "And the fat and the inwards were burnt upon the altar, whilst the bodywas burned for sin without the camp" (Exo 29:13,14, Lev 8:14-17).
And now having said this much, wherein have I derogated from the glory and holinessof Christ? Yea, I have endeavoured to set forth something of the greatness of hissorrows, the odiousness of sin, the nature of justice, and the love of Christ. Andbe sure, by how much the sufferings of the Son of God abounded for us, by so muchwas this unsearchable love of Christ made manifest. Nor can they that would, beforethe people, pare away, and make but little these infinite sufferings of our Lord,make his love to be so great as they ought, let them use what rhetoric they can.For their objecting the odious names and place of hell, accounting it not to be fitto say, That so holy a person as the Son of God was there. I answer, though I havenot asserted it, yet let me ask, which is more odious, hell or sin? Or whether suchthink that Christ Jesus was subject to be tainted by the badness of the place, hadhe been there? Or whether, when the scripture says, God is in hell, it is any disparagementto him? (Psa 139:8) Or if a man should be so bold as to say so, Whether by so saying,he confineth Christ to that place for ever? And whether by so thinking he has contradictedthat called the Apostles' creed?
(2.) Having thus spoken of the death and sufferings of Christ, I shall in the nextplace speak of his preparations for his so suffering for us; and by so doing, yetshew you something more of the greatness of his love.
Christ, as I have told you, was even before his sufferings, a person of no mean generation,being the Son of the eternal God: Neither had his Father any more such sons but he;consequently he of right was heir of all things, and so to have dominion over allworlds. For, "for him were all things created" (Col 1:16). And hence allcreatures are subject to him; yea the angels of God worship him (Heb 1). Whereforeas so considered, he augmented not his state by becoming lower than the angels forus, for what can be added to him, that is naturally God. Indeed he did take, forour sakes, the human nature into union with himself, and so began to manifest hisglory; and the kindness that he had for us before all worlds, began now eminentlyto shew itself. Had this Christ of God, our friend, given all he had to save us,had not his love been wonderful? But when he shall give for us himself, this is morewonderful. But this is not all, the case was so betwixt God and man, that this Sonof God could not, as he was before the world was, give himself a ransom for us, hebeing altogether incapable so to do, being such an one as could not be subject todeath, the condition that we by sin had put ourselves into.
Wherefore that which would have been a death to some, to wit, the laying aside ofglory and becoming, of the King of princes, a servant of the meanest form; this heof his own good-will, was heartily content to do. Wherefore, he that once was theobject of the fear of angels, is now become a little creature, a worm, an inferiorone (Psa 22:6), born of a woman, brought forth in a stable, laid in a manger (Luke2:7), scorned of men, tempted of devils (Luke 4:2), was beholden to his creaturesfor food, for raiment, for harbour, and a place wherein to lay his head when dead.In a word, he "made himself of no reputation, took upon him the form of a servant,and was made in the likeness of men" (Phil 2:7), that he might become capableto do this kindness for us. And it is worth your noting, that all the while thathe was in the world, putting himself upon those other preparations which were tobe antecedent to his being made a sacrifice for us, no man, though he told what hecame about to many, had, as we read of, an heart once to thank him for what he cameabout (Isa 53:3). No, they railed on him, they degraded him, they called him devil,they said he was mad, and a deceiver, a blasphemer of God, and a rebel against thestate: They accused him to the governor; yea, one of his disciples sold him, anotherdenied him, and they all forsook him, and left him to shift for himself in the handsof his horrible enemies; who beat him with their fists, spat on him, mocked him,crowned him with thorns, scourged him, made a gazing stock of him, and finally, hangedhim up by the hands and the feet alive, and gave him vinegar to increase his affliction,when he complained that his anguish had made him thirsty. And yet all this couldnot take his heart off the work of our redemption. To die he came, die he would,and die he did before he made his return to the Father, for our sins, that we mightlive through him.  Nor may what we read of in the word concerning those temporalsufferings that he underwent be over-looked, and passed by without serious consideration;they being a part of the curse that our sin had deserved! For all temporal plaguesare due to our sin while we live, as well as the curse of God to everlasting perdition,when we die. Wherefore this is the reason why the whole life of the Lord Jesus wassuch a life of affliction and sorrow, he therein bare our sicknesses, and took uponhim our deserts: So that now the curse in temporals, as well as the curse in spirituals,and of everlasting malediction, is removed by him away from God's people; and sincehe overcame them, and got to the cross, it was by reason of the worthiness of thehumble obedience that he yielded to his Father's law in our flesh. For his wholelife (as well as his death) was a life of merit and purchase, and desert. Hence itis said, "he increased in favour with God" (Luke 2:52). For his works madehim still more acceptable to him: For he standing in the room of man, and becomingour reconciler to God; by the heavenly majesty he was counted as such, and so gotfor us what he earned by his mediatory works; and also partook thereof as he wasour head himself. And was there not in all these things love, and love that was infinite?Love which was not essential to his divine nature, could never have carried him throughso great a work as this: Passions here would a failed, would a retreated, and havegiven the recoil; yea, his very humanity would here have flagged and fainted, hadit not been managed, governed, and strengthened by his eternal Spirit. Whereforeit is said, that "through the eternal Spirit he offered himself without spotto God" (Heb 9:14). And that he was declared to be the Son of God, with so doing,and by the resurrection from the dead (Rom 1:4).
2. We come now to the second thing propounded, and by which his love is discovered,and that is his improving of his dying for us. But I must crave pardon of my reader,if he thinks that I can discover the ten hundred thousandth part thereof, for itis impossible; but my meaning is, to give a few hints what beginnings of improvementhe made thereof, in order to his further progress therein.
(1.) Therefore, This his death for us, was so virtuous, that in the space of threedays and three nights, it reconciled to God in the body of his flesh as a commonperson, all, and every one of God's elect. Christ, when he addressed himself to die,presented himself to the justice of the law, as a common person; standing in thested, place, and room of all that he undertook for; He gave "his life a ransomfor many" (Matt 20:28). "He came into the world to save sinners" (1Tim 1:15). And as he thus presented himself, so God, his Father, admitted him tothis work; and therefore it is said, "The Lord laid upon him the iniquity ofus all": And again, "surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows"(Isa 53:4,6,12). Hence it unavoidably follows, that whatever he felt, and underwentin the manner, or nature, or horribleness of the death he died, he felt and underwentall as a common person; that is, as he stood in the sted of others: Therefore itis said, "He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities";and that "the chastisement of our peace was upon him" (Isa 53:5). And again"the just died for the unjust" (1 Peter 3:18).
Now then, if he presented himself as a common person to justice, if God so admittedand accounted him, if also he laid the sins of the people, whose persons he represented,upon him, and under that consideration punishes him with those punishments and death,that he died. Then Christ in life and death is concluded by the Father to live anddie as a common or public person, representing all in this life and death, for whomhe undertook thus to live, and thus to die. So then, it must needs be, that whatnext befalls this common person, it befalls him with respect to them in whose roomand place he stood and suffered. Now, the next that follows, is, "that he isjustified of God": That is, acquitted and discharged from this punishment, forthe sake of the worthiness of his death and merits; for that must be before he couldbe raised from the dead (Acts 2:24): God raised him not up as guilty, to justifyhim afterwards: His resurrection was the declaration of his precedent justification.He was raised from the dead, because it was neither in equity or justice possiblethat he should be holden longer there, his merits procured the contrary.
Now he was condemned of God's law, and died by the hand of justice, he was acquittedby God's law, and justified of justice; and all as a common person; so then, in hisacquitting, we are acquitted, in his justification we are justified; and thereforethe Apostle applieth God's justifying of Christ to himself; and that rightly (Isa50:8, Rom 8:33,34). For if Christ be my undertaker, will stand in my place, and dofor me, 'tis but reasonable that I should be a partaker: Wherefore we are also saidto be "quickened together with him" (Eph 2:5): That is, when he was quickenedin the grave; raised up together, and made to sit together in heavenly places inChrist Jesus. Therefore another scripture saith, "Hath He quickened you - -together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses" (Col 2:13). This quickening,must not be understood of the renovation of our hearts, but of the restoring of JesusChrist to life after he was crucified; and we are said to be quickened together withhim, because we were quickened in him at his death, and were to fall or stand byhim quite through the three days and three nights work; and were to take thereforeour lot with him: Wherefore it is said again, That his resurrection is our justification(Rom 4:25). That by one offering he has purged our sins for ever (Heb 10:12); andthat by his death he hath "delivered us from the wrath to come" (1 Thess1:10). But I say, I would be understood aright: This life resideth yet in the Son,and is communicated from him to us, as we are called to believe his word; mean whilewe are secured from wrath and hell, being justified in his justification, quickenedin his quickening, raised up in his resurrection; and made to sit already togetherin heavenly places in Christ Jesus!  And is not this a glorious improvement ofhis death, that after two days the whole body of the elect, in him, should be revived,and that in the third day we should live in the sight of God, in and by him (Heb6:18-20).
(2.) Another improvement of his death for us, was this, By that he slew for us, ourinfernal foes; by it he abolished death (2 Tim 1:1); by death he destroyed him thathad the power of death (Heb 2:14): By death he took away the sting of death (1 Cor15:55,56); by death he made death a pleasant sleep to saints, and the grave for awhile, an easy house and home for the body. By death he made death such an advantageto us, that it is become a means of translating of the souls of them that believein him, to life. And all this is manifest, for that death is ours, a blessing tous, as well as Paul and Apollos, the world and life itself (1 Cor 3:22). And thatall this is done for us by his death, is apparent, for that his person is where itis, and that by himself as a common person he has got the victory for us. For thoughas yet all things are not put under our feet, yet we see Jesus crowned with honourand glory, who by the grace of God tasteth death for every man. "For it becameGod, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, to make the captain oftheir salvation perfect through sufferings" (Heb 2:7-10). It became him; thatis, it was but just and right, he should do so, if there was enough in the virtuousnessof his death and blood to require such a thing. But there was so. Wherefore God hasexalted him, and us in him, above these infernal foes. Let us therefore see ourselvesdelivered from death first, by the exaltation of our Jesus, let us behold him I sayas crowned with glory and honour, as, or because, he tasted death for us. And thenwe shall see ourselves already in heaven by our head, our undertaker, our Jesus,our Saviour.
(3.) Another improvement that has already been made of his death for us, is thus,he hath at his entrance into the presence of God, for his worthiness sake, obtainedthat the Holy Ghost should be given unto him for us, that we by that might in allthings, yet to be done, be made meet to be partakers personally, in ourselves, aswell as virtually by our head and forerunner, of the inheritance of the saints inlight. Wherefore the abundant pourings out of that was forborn until the resurrection,and glorification of our Lord Jesus. "For the Holy Ghost was not yet given,because that Jesus was not yet glorified" (John 7:39). Nor was it given so soonas received: for he received it upon his entering into the holy place, when he hadsprinkled the mercy seat with the blood of sprinkling, but it was not given out tous till sometimes after (Acts 4): however it was obtained before (Acts 2:32,33).And it was meet that it should in that infinite immeasurableness in which he receivedit, first abide upon him, that his human nature, which was the first fruits of theelection of God, might receive by its abidings upon him, that glory for which itwas ordained; and that we might receive, as we receive all other things, first byour head and undertaker, sanctification in the fullness of it. Hence it is written,that as he is made unto us of God, wisdom, and righteousness, and redemption, sosanctification too (1 Cor 1:30): For first we are sanctified in his flesh, as weare justified by his righteousness. Wherefore he is that holy one that setteth us,in himself, a holy lump before God, not only with reference to justification andlife, but with reference to sanctification and holiness: For we that are elect, areall considered in him as he has received that, as well as in that he has taken possessionof the heaven for us. I count not this all the benefit that accrueth to us by Jesushis receiving the Holy Ghost, at his entrance into the presence of God for us: Forwe also are to receive it ourselves from him, according as by God we are placed inthe body at the times appointed of the Father. That we, as was said, may receivepersonal quickening, personal renovation, personal sanctification; and in conclusion,glory. But I say, for that he hath received this holy Spirit to himself, he receivedit as the effect of his ascension, which was the effect of his resurrection, andof the merit of his death and passion. And he received it as a common person, asa head and undertaker for the people.
(4.) Another improvement that has been made of his death, and of the merits thereoffor us, is that he has obtained to be made of God, the chief and high Lord of heavenand earth, for us, (All this while we speak of the exaltation of the human nature,in, by, and with which, the Son of God became capable to be our reconciler unto God)."All things," saith he, "are delivered unto me of my Father. And allpower in heaven and earth is given unto me"; and all this because he died. "Hehumbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross; whereforeGod hath highly exalted him, and given him a name above every name, that at the nameof Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, of things in earth, or thingsunder the earth: and that every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, tothe glory of God the Father" (Phil 2). And all this is, as was said afore, forour sakes. He has given him to be head over all things to the church (Eph 1:22).
Wherefore, whoever is set up on earth, they are set up by our Lord. "By me,"saith he, "kings reign, and princes decree justice. By me princes rule, andnobles, even all the judges of the earth" (Prov 8:15,16). Nor are they whenset up, left to do, though they should desire it, their own will and pleasure. TheMetheg-Ammah, the bridle, is in his own hand, and he giveth reins, or check, evenas it pleaseth him (2 Sam 8:1), He has this power, for the well-being of his people.Nor are the fallen angels exempted from being put under his rebuke: He is the "onlypotentate" (1 Tim 6:15), and in his times will shew it, Peter tells us, he "isgone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels, and authorities, and powersbeing made subject unto him" (1 Peter 3:22).
This power, as I said, he has received for the sake of his church on earth, and forher conduct and well-being among the sons of men. Hence, as he is called the kingof nations, in general (Jer 10:7); so the King of saints, in special (Rev 15:3):and as he is said to be head over all things in general; so to his church in special.
(5.) Another improvement that he hath made of his death for us, is, he hath obtained,and received into his own hand sufficiency of gifts to make ministers for his churchwithal. I say, to make and maintain, in opposition to all that would hinder, a sufficientministry (1 Cor 12:28-30). Wherefore he saith, "When he ascended on high, heled captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. And he gave some Apostles, some prophets,some evangelists, some pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, forthe work of the ministry, for edifying of the body of Christ. Until we all come inthe unity of the faith, and knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, untothe measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ" (Eph 4:8-14). Many wayshas Satan devised to bring into contempt this blessed advantage that Christ has receivedof God for the benefit of his church; partly while he stirs up persons to revilethe sufficiency of the Holy Ghost, as to this thing: partly, while he stirs up hisown limbs and members, to broach his delusions in the world, in the name of Christ,and as they blasphemously call it by the assistance of the Holy Ghost; partlywhile he tempteth novices in their faith, to study and labour in nice distinctions,and the affecting of uncouth expressions, that vary from the form of sound words,thereby to get applause, and a name, a forerunner of their own destruction (John3:6).
But, notwithstanding all this, "Wisdom is justified of her children" (Matt11:19): and at the last day, when the outside, and inside of all things shall beseen and compared, it will appear that the Son of God has so managed his own servantsin the ministry of his word, and so managed his word, while they have been labouringin it, as to put in his blessing by that, upon the souls of sinners, and has blownaway all other things as chaff (James 1:18).
(6.) Another improvement that the Lord Christ has made of his death, for his, isthe obtaining, and taking possession of heaven for them. "By his own blood heentered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us"(Heb 9:12). This heaven! who knows what it is? (Matt 22:23) This glory! who knowswhat it is? It is called God's throne, God's house (John 14:2), God's habitation;paradise (2 Cor 12:4), the kingdom of God, the high and holy place (Isa 57:15). Abraham'sbosom (Luke 16:22), and the place of heavenly pleasures (Psa 16:11); in this heavenis to be found, the face of God for ever (Psa 41:12): Immortality, the person ofChrist, the prophets, the angels, the revelation of all mysteries, the knowledgeof all the elect, ETERNITY.
Of this heaven, as was said afore, we are possessed already, we are in it, we areset down in it, and partake already of the benefits thereof, but all by our headand undertaker; and 'tis fit that we should believe this, rejoice in this, talk ofthis, tell one another of this, and live in the expectation of our own personal enjoymentof it. And as we should do all this, so we should bless and praise the name of Godwho has put over this house, this kingdom, and inheritance into the hand of so faithfula friend. Yea, a brother, a Saviour and blessed undertaker for us. And lastly, sinceall these things already mentioned, are the fruit of the sufferings of our Jesus,and his sufferings the fruit of that love of his that passeth knowledge: how shouldwe bow the knee before him, and call him tender Father; yea, how should we love andobey him, and devote ourselves unto his service, and be willing to be also sufferersfor his sake, to whom be honour and glory for ever. And thus much of the love ofChrist in general.
I might here add many other things, but as I told you before, we would under thehead but now touched upon, treat about the fundamentals or great and chief partsthereof, [Christ's love] and then.
SECOND, Of the exceeding greatness of it more particularly: Wherefore of that wemust say something now.
And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge. In that it is said to passknowledge, 'tis manifest it is exceeding great, or greatly going beyond what canbe known; for to exceed, is to go beyond, be above, or to be out of the reach ofwhat would comprehend that which is so. And since the expression is absolutely indefinite,and respecteth not the knowledge of this or the other creature only: it is manifest,that Paul by his thus saying, challengeth all creatures in heaven and earth to findout the bottom of this love if they can. The love of Christ which passeth knowledge.I will add, that forasmuch as he is indefinite also about the knowledge, as wellas about the persons knowing, it is out of doubt that he here engageth all knowledge,in what enlargements, attainments, improvements, and heights soever it hath, or mayfor ever attain unto. It passeth knowledge (Eph 3:19).
Of the same import also is that other passage of the Apostle a little above in theself-same chapter. I preach, saith he, among the Gentiles the unsearchable richesof Christ: or those riches of Christ that cannot by searching, be found out in theall of them: The riches, the riches of his love and grace. The riches of his loveand grace towards us. "For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that,though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his povertymight be made  rich" (2 Cor 8:9). Ye know the grace, that is so far, andso far every believer knows it: for that his leaving heaven and taking upon him flesh,that he might bring us thither, is manifest to all. But yet, all the grace that waswrapped up in that amazing condescension, knoweth none, nor can know: for if thatmight be, that possibility would be a flat contradiction to the text: "The loveof Christ which passeth knowledge." Wherefore the riches of this love in theutmost of it, is not, cannot be known by any: let their understanding and knowledge,be heightened and improved what it may. Yea, and being heightened and improved, letwhat search there can by it be made into this love and grace. "That which isafar off, and exceeding deep, who can find out?" (Eccl 7:24) And that this loveof Christ is so, shall anon be made more apparent. But at present we will proceedto particular challenges for the making out of this, and then we will urge thosereasons that will be for the further confirmation of the whole.
First, This love passes the knowledge of the wisest saint, we now single out thegreatest proficient in this knowledge; and to confirm this, I need go no furtherthan to the man that spake these words; to wit, Paul, for in his conclusion he includeshimself. The love of Christ which passeth knowledge, even my knowledge. As who shouldsay; though I have waded a great way in the grace of Christ, and have as much experienceof his love as any he in all the world, yet I confess myself short, as to the fullnessthat is therein, nor will I stick to conclude of any other, That "he knows nothingyet as he ought to know" (1 Cor 8:2, 13:12).
Second, This love passeth the knowledge of all the saints, were it all put together,we, we all, and every one, did we each of us contribute for the manifesting of thislove, what it is, the whole of what we know, it would amount but to a broken knowledge;we know but in part, we see darkly (1 Cor 13:9-12), we walk not by sight, but faith(2 Cor 5:7). True, now we speak of saints on earth.
Third, But we will speak of saints in heaven; they cannot to the utmost, know thislove of Christ. For though they know more thereof than saints on earth, because theyare more in the open visions of it, and also are more enlarged, being spirits perfect,than we on earth. Yet, to say no more now, they do not see the rich and unsearchablerunnings out thereof unto sinners here on earth. Nor may they there measure that,to others, by what they themselves knew of it here. For sins, and times and personsand other circumstances, may much alter the case, but were all the saints on earth,and all the saints in heaven to contribute all that they know of this love of Christ,and to put it into one sum of knowledge, they would greatly come short of knowingthe utmost of this love, for that there is an infinite deal of this love, yet unknownby them. 'Tis said plainly, that they on earth do not yet know what they shall be(1 John 3:2). And as for them in heaven, they are not yet made perfect as they shallbe (Heb 11:39,40). Besides, we find the souls under the altar, how perfect now soever,when compared with that state they were in when with the body (Isa 63:16); yet arenot able in all points, though in glory, to know, and so to govern themselves therewithout directions (Rev 6:9-11). I say, they are not able, without directions andinstructions, to know the kinds and manner of workings of the love of Christ towardsus that dwell on earth.
Fourth, We will join with these, the angels, and when all of them, with men, haveput all and every whit of what they know of this love of Christ together, they mustcome far short of reaching to, or of understanding the utmost bound thereof. I grant,that angels do know, in some certain parts of knowledge of the love of Christ, morethan saints on earth can know while here; but then again, I know that even they doalso learn many things of saints on earth, which shews that themselves know alsobut in part (Eph 3:10); so then, all, as yet, as to this love of Christ, and theutmost knowledge of it, are but as so many imperfects (1 Peter 1:12), nor can theyall, put all their imperfects together, make up a perfect knowledge of this loveof Christ; for the texts do yet stand where they did, and say, his riches are unsearchable,and his love that which passeth knowledge. We will come now to shew you, besideswhat has been already touched on.
THE REASON why this riches is unsearchable, and that love such as passeth knowledge;and the
Reason First is, Because It is eternal. All that is eternal, has attending of it,as to the utmost knowledge of it, a fourfold impossibility. 1. It is without beginning.2. It is without end. 3. It is infinite. 4. It is incomprehensible.
1. It is without beginning: That which was before the world was, is without a beginning,but the love of Christ was before the world.
This is evident from Proverbs the eighth, "his delights," before God hadmade the world, are there said to be, "with the sons of men." Not thatwe then had being, for we were as yet uncreated; but though we had not beings created,we had being in the love and affections of Jesus Christ. Now this love of Christmust needs, as to the fullness of it, as to the utmost of it, be absolutely unknownto man. Who can tell how many heart- pleasing thoughts Christ had of us before theworld began? Who can tell how much he then was delighted in that being we had inhis affections; as also, in the consideration of our beings, believings, and beingwith him afterwards.
In general we may conclude, it was great; for there seems to be a parallel betwixthis Father's delights in him, and his delights in us. "I was daily his delight,- - any my delights were with the sons of men" (Prov 8:22,30,31). But I say,who can tell, who can tell altogether, what and how much the Father delighted inhis Son before the world began? Who can tell what kind of delight the Father hadin the Son before the world began? Why there seems to be a parallel betwixt the Father'slove to Christ, and Christ's love to us; the Father's delight in Christ, and hisdelight in us. Yea, Christ confirms it, saying, "As the Father hath loved me,so have I loved you, continue ye in my love" (John 15:9). I know that I am notyet upon the nature of the word eternal; yet since, by eternal, we understand, beforethe world began, as well as forward, to an endless forever: We may a little enquireof folks as they may read, if they can tell the kind or measure of the love wherewithChrist then loved us. I remember the question that God asked Job, "Where,"saith he, "wast thou when I laid the foundation of the earth? declare if thouhast understanding" (Job 38:4): Thereby insinuating that because it was donebefore he had his being, therefore he could not tell how it was done. Now, if a workso visible, as the creation is, is yet as to the manner of the workmanship thereofwholly unknown to them that commenced in their beings afterwards: How shall thatwhich has, in all the circumstances of it, been more hidden and inward, be foundout by them that have intelligence thereof by the ear, and but in part, and thatin a mystery, and long afterwards. But to conclude this, That which is eternal iswithout all beginning. This was presented to consideration before, and thereforeit cannot to perfection be known.
2. That which is eternal is without end, and how can an endless thing be known, thatwhich has no end has no middle, wherefore it is impossible that the one half of thelove that Christ has for his church should ever by them be known. I know that thosevisions that the saved shall have in heaven of this love, will far transcend ourutmost knowledge here, even as far as the light of the sun at noon, goes beyond thelight of a blinking candle at midnight; and hence it is, that when the days of thosevisions are come, the knowledge that we now have, shall be swallowed up. "Whenthat which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away"(1 Cor 13:10). And although he speaks here of perfections, "when that whichis perfect is come," &c., yet even that perfection must not be thought tobe such as is the perfection of God; for then should all that are saved be so manyexternals and so many infinites, as he is infinite. But the meaning is, we shallthen be with the eternal, shall immediately enjoy him with all the perfection ofknowledge, as far as is possible for a creature, when he is wrought up to the utmostheight that his created substance will bear to be capable of. But for all that, thisperfection will yet come short of the perfection of him that made him, and consequently,short of knowing the utmost of his love; since that in the root is his very essenceand nature. I know it says also, that we shall know even as we are known. But yetthis must not be understood, as if we should know God as fully as he knows us. Itwould be folly and madness so to conclude; but the meaning is, we are known for happiness;we are known of God, for heaven and felicity; and when that which is perfect is come,then shall we perfectly know, and enjoy that for which we are now known of God. Andthis is that which the Apostle longed for, namely, If by any means, he might apprehendthat for which he was also apprehended of Christ Jesus (Phil 3:12).
That is, know, and see that, unto the which he was appointed of God and apprehendedof Christ Jesus. 'Tis said again, "We shall be like him, for we shall see himas he is" (1 John 3:2). This text has respect to the Son, as to his humanity,and not as to his divinity. And not as to his divinity, simply, or distinctly considered;for as to that it is as possible for a spirit to drink up the sea, as for the mostenlarged saint that is, or ever shall be in glory, so to see God as to know him altogether,to the utmost, or throughout. But the humanity of the Son of God, we shall see throughout,in all the beauty and glory that is upon him; and that was prepared for him beforethe foundation of the world. And Christ will that we see this glory, when he takesus up in glory to himself (John 17:24); but the utmost boundlessness of the divinemajesty, the eternal deity of the Son of God, cannot be known to the utmost or altogether.I do not doubt, but that there will then in him, I mean in Christ, and in us, breakforth these glorious rays and beams of the eternal majesty, as will make him in eachof us admirable one to another (2 Thess 1:10); and that then, that of God shall beknown of us, that now never entered into our hearts to think of. But the whole, isnot, cannot, shall never be fully known of any. And therefore the love of Christ,it being essential to himself, cannot be known because of the endlessness that isin it. I said before, that which has no end, has no middle, how then shall thosethat shall be in heaven eternally, ever pass over half the breadth of eternity. True,I know that all enjoyments there will be enjoyments eternal. Yea, that whatever weshall there embrace, or what embraces we shall be embraced with, shall be eternal;but I put a difference betwixt that which is eternal, as to the nature, and thatwhich is so as to the durableness thereof. The nature of eternal things we shallenjoy, so soon as ever we come to heaven, but the duration of eternal things, themwe shall never be able to pass through, for they are endless. So then, the eternallove of Christ, as to the nature of it, will be perfectly known of saints, when theyshall dwell in heaven; but the endlessness thereof they shall never attain unto.And this will be their happiness. For could it be, that we should in heaven everreach the end of our blessedness: (as we should, could we reach to the end of thislove of Christ) why then, as the saying is, We should be at the land's end, and feelthe bottom of all our enjoyments. Besides, whatsoever has an end, has a time to decay,and to cease to be, as well as to have a time to shew forth its highest excellencies.Wherefore, from all these considerations it is most manifest, that the love of Christis unsearchable, and that it passes knowledge.
3. and 4. Now the other two things follow of course, to wit, That this love is infiniteand incomprehensible. Wherefore here is that that still is above and beyond eventhose that are arrived to the utmost of their perfections. And this, if I may sosay, will keep them in an employ, even when they are in heaven; though not an employthat is laboursome, tiresome, burdensome, yet an employ that is dutiful, delightfuland profitable; for although the work and worship of saints in heaven is not particularlyrevealed as yet, and so "it doth not yet appear what we shall be," yetin the general we may say, there will be that for them to do, that has not yet bythem been done, and by that work which they shall do there, their delight will bedelight unto them. The law was the shadow and not the very image of heavenly things(Heb 10:1). The image is an image, and not the heavenly things themselves (the heavenlythings they are saints) there shall be worship in the heavens (Heb 9:23). Nor willthis at all derogate from their glory. The angels now wait upon God and serve him(Psa 103:20); the Son of God, is now a minister, and waiteth upon his service inheaven (Heb 8:1,2); some saints have been employed about service for God after theyhave been in heaven (Luke 9:29-32); and why we should be idle spectators, when wecome thither, I see not reason to believe. It may be said, "They there restfrom their labours." True, but not from their delights. All things then thatonce were burdensome, whether in suffering or service, shall be done away, and thatwhich is delightful and pleasurable shall remain. But then will be a time to receive,and not to work. True, if by work you mean such as we now count work; but what ifour work be there, to receive and bless. The fishes in the sea do drink, swim anddrink. But for a further discourse of this, let that alone till we come thither.But to come down again into the world, for now we are talking of things aloft:
Reason Second, This love of Christ must needs be beyond our knowledge, because wecannot possibly know the utmost of our sin. Sin is that which sets out, and off,the knowledge of the love of Christ. There are four things that must be spoken tofor the clearing of this. 1. The nature of sin. 2. The aggravations of sin. 3. Theutmost tendencies of sin. 4. And the perfect knowledge of all this.
1. Before we can know this love of Christ, as afore, we must necessarily know thenature of sin, that is, what sin is, what sin is in itself. But no man knows thenature of sin to the full; not what sin in itself is to the full. The Apostle saith,"That sin, [that is in itself] is exceeding sinful" (Rom 7:13). That is,exceeding it as to its filthiness, goes beyond our knowledge: But this is seen bythe commandment. Now the reason why none can, to the full, know the horrible natureof sin, is because none, to the full, can know the blessed nature of the blessedGod. For sin is the opposite to God. There is nothing that seeketh absolutely, andin its own nature to overcome, and to annihilate God, but sin, and sin doth so. Sinis worse than the devil; he therefore that is more afraid of the devil than of sin,knows not the badness of sin as he ought; nor but little of the love of Jesus Christ.He that knows not what sin would have done to the world, had not Christ stepped betwixtthose harms and it. How can he know so much as the extent of the love of Christ incommon? And he that knows not what sin would have done to him in particular, hadnot Christ the Lord, stepped in and saved, cannot know the utmost of the love ofChrist to him in particular. Sin therefore in the utmost evil of it, cannot be knownof us: so consequently the love of Christ in the utmost goodness of it, cannot beknown of us.
Besides, there are many sins committed by us, dropping from us, and that polluteus, that we are not at all aware of; how then should we know that love of Christby which we are delivered from them? Lord, "who can understand his errors?"said David (Psa 19:12). Consequently, who can understand the love that saves himfrom them? moreover, he that knows the love of Christ to the full, must also knowto the full that wrath and anger of God, that like hell itself, burneth against sinnersfor the sake of sin: but this knows none. Lord, "who knoweth the power of thineanger?" said Moses (Psa 90:11). Therefore none knows this love of Christ tothe full. The nature of sin is to get into our good, to mix itself with our good,to lie lurking many times under the formality and shew of good; and that so close,so cunningly, and invisibly, that the party concerned, embraces it for virtue, andknows not otherwise to do; and yet from this he is saved by the love of Christ; andtherefore, as was hinted but now, if a man doth not know the nature of his wound,how should he know the nature and excellency of the balsam that hath cured him ofhis wound.
2. There are the due aggravations that belong to sin, which men are unacquaintedwith; it was one of the great things that the prophets were concerned with from Godtowards the people, (as to shew them their sins, so) to shew them what aggravationsdid belong thereto (Jer 2, Jer 3, Eze 16).
There are sins against light, sins against knowledge, sins against love, sins againstlearning, sins against threatenings, sins against promises, vows and resolutions,sins against experience, sins against examples of anger, and sins that have great,and high, and strange aggravations attending of them; the which we are ignorant of,though not altogether, yet in too great a measure. Now if these things be so, howcan the love that saveth us from them be known or understood to the full?
Alas! our ignorance of these things is manifest by our unwillingness to abide affliction,by our secret murmuring under the hand of God; by our wondering why we are so chastisedas we are, by our thinking long that the affliction is no sooner removed.
Or, if our ignorance of the vileness of our actions is not manifest this way, yetit is in our lightness under our guilt, our slight thoughts of our doings, our slovenlydoing of duties, and asking of forgiveness after some evil or unbecoming actions.'Tis to no boot to be particular, the whole course of our lives doth too fully makeit manifest, that we are wonderful short in knowing both the nature, and also theaggravations of our sins: and how then should we know that love of Christ in itsfull dimensions, by which we are saved and delivered therefrom?
3. Who knows the utmost tendencies of sin? I mean, what the least sin driveth at,and what it would unavoidably run the sinner into. There is not a plague, a judgment,an affliction, an evil under heaven, that the least of our transgressions has notcalled for at the hands of the great God! nay, the least sin calleth for all thedistresses that are under heaven, to fall upon the soul and body of the sinner atonce. This is plain, for that the least sin deserveth hell; which is worse than allthe plagues that are on earth. But I say, who understandeth this? And I say again,if one sin, the least sin deserveth all these things, what thinkest thou do all thysins deserve? how many judgments! how many plagues! how many lashes with God's ironwhip dost thou deserve? besides there is hell itself, the place itself, the fireitself, the nature of the torments, and the durableness of them, who can understand?
But this is not all, the tendencies of thy sins are to kill others. Men, good menlittle think how many of their neighbours one of their sins may kill. As, how manygood men and good women do unawares, through their uncircumspectness, drive theirown children down into the deep? (Psa 106:6,7) We will easily count them very hardheartedsinners, that used to offer their children in sacrifice to devils; when 'tis easyto do worse ourselves: they did but kill the body, but we body and soul in hell,if we have not a care.
Do we know how our sins provoke God? how they grieve the Holy Ghost? how they weakenour graces? how they spoil our prayers? how they weaken faith? how they tempt Christto be ashamed of us? and how they hold back good from us? And if we know not everyone of all these things to the full, how shall we know to the full the love of Christwhich saveth us from them all?
4. Again, But who has the perfect knowledge of all these things? I will grant thatsome good souls may have waded a great way in some one, or more of them; but I knowthat there is not any that thoroughly know them all. And yet the love of Christ dothsave us from all, notwithstanding all the vileness and soul-damning virtue thatis in them. Alas! how short are we of the knowledge of ourselves, and of what isin us. How many are there that do not know that man consisteth of a body made ofdust, and of an immortal soul? Yea, and how many be there of those that confess it,that know not the constitution of either. I will add, how many are there that professthemselves to be students of those two parts of man, that have oftentimes provedthemselves to be but fools as to both? and I will conclude that there is not a manunder heaven that knoweth it all together: For man is "fearfully and wonderfullymade" (Psa 139:14): nor can the manner of the union of these two parts be perfectlyfound out. How much more then must we needs be at loss as to the fullness of theknowledge of the love of Christ? But,
Reason Third, He that altogether knoweth the love of Christ, must, precedent to that,know not only all the wiles of the devil; but also all the plottings, contrivingsand designs and attempts of that wicked one; yea, he must know, all the times thathe hath been with God, together with all the motions that he has made that he mighthave leave to fall upon us, as upon Job and Peter, to try if he might swallow usup (Job 1 and 2, Luke 22:31). But who knows all this? no man, no angel. For, if theheart of man be so deep, that none, by all his actions, save God, can tell the utmostsecrets that are therein; how should the heart of angels, which in all likelihoodare deeper, be found out by any mortal man. And yet this must be found out beforewe can find out the utmost of the love of Christ to us. I conclude therefore fromall these things, that the love of Christ passeth knowledge: or that by no means,the bottom, the utmost bounds thereof can be understood.
Reason Fourth, He that will presume to say, this love of Christ can be to the utmostknown by us, must presume to say that he knoweth the utmost of the merits of hisblood, the utmost exercise of his patience, the utmost of his intercession, the utmostof the glory that he has prepared and taken possession of for us. But I presume thatthere is none that can know all this, therefore I may without any fear assert, thereis none that knows, that is, that knows to the full, the other.
We come now more particularly to speak of the knowledge ofthe love of Christ; we have spoken of the love of Christ; and of the exceeding greatnessof it: and now we come,
THIRD, To speak of the knowledge of it; that is to say, we will shew
WHAT KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST'S LOVE IS ATTAINABLE IN THIS WORLD, under these three heads.As to this, First, It may be known as to the nature of it. Second, It may be knownin many of the degrees of it. Third, But the greatest knowledge that we can haveof it here, is to know that it passes knowledge.
First, We may know it in the nature of it. That is, that it is love free, divine,heavenly, everlasting, incorruptible. And this no love is but the love of Christ;all other love is either love corruptible, transient, mixed, or earthly. It is divine,for 'tis the love of the holy nature of God. It is heavenly, for that it is fromabove: it is everlasting, for that it has no end: it is immortal, for that thereis not the appearance of corruptibleness in it, or likelihood of decay.
This is general knowledge, and this is common among the saints, at leastwise in thenotion of it. Though I confess, it is hard in time of temptation, practically tohold fast the soul to all these things. But, as I have said already, this love ofChrist must be such, because love in the root of it, is essential to his nature,as also I have proved now, as is the root, such are the branches; and as is the spring,such are the streams, unless the channels in which those streams do run, should becorrupted, and so defile it; but I know no channels through which this love of Christis conveyed unto us, but those made in his side, his hands, and his feet, &c.Or those gracious promises that dropped like honey from his holy lips, in the dayof his love, in which he spake them: and seeing his love is conveyed to us, as throughthose channels, and so by the conduit of the holy and blessed spirit of God, to ourhearts, it cannot be that it should hitherto be corrupted. I know the cisterns, towit, our hearts, into which it is conveyed, are unclean, and may take away much,through the damp that they may put upon it, of the native savour and sweetness thereof.I know also, that there are those that tread down, and muddy those streams with theirfeet (Eze 34:18,19); but yet neither the love nor the channels in which it runs,should bear the blame of this. And I hope those that are saints indeed, will notonly be preserved to eternal life, but nourished with this that is incorruptibleunto the day of Christ. I told you before, that in the hour of temptation, it willbe hard for the soul to hold fast to these things; that is, to the true definitionof this love; for then, or at such seasons, it will not be admitted that the loveof Christ is either transient, or mixed; but we count that we cannot be loved long,unless something better than yet we see in us, be found there, as an inducement toChrist to love, and to continue to love our poor souls (Isa 64:6). But these theChristian at length gets over; for he sees, by experience, he hath no such inducement(Deu 9:5); also, that Christ loves freely, and not for, or because of such poor,silly, imaginary enticements (Eze 16:60-62). Thus therefore the love of Christ maybe known, that is, in the nature of it: it may, I say, but not easily (Eze 36:25-33).For this knowledge is neither easily got, though got, nor easily retained, thoughretained. There is nothing that Satan setteth himself more against, than the breakingforth of the love of Christ in its own proper native lustre. For he knows it destroyshis kingdom, which standeth in profaneness, in errors and delusions, the only destructionof which is the knowledge of this love of Christ (2 Cor 5:14). What mean those swarmsof opinions that are in the world? what is the reason that some are carried aboutas clouds, with a tempest? what mean men's waverings, men's changing, and interchangingtruth for error, and one error for another? why, this is the thing, the devil isin it. This work is his, and he makes this ado, to make a dust; and a dust to darkenthe light of the gospel withal. And if he once attaineth to that, then farewell thetrue knowledge of the love of Christ.
Also he will assault the spirits of Christians with divers and sundry cogitations,such as shall have in them a tendency to darken the judgment, delude the fancy, toabuse the conscience. He has an art to metamorphose all things. He can make God seemto be to us, a most fierce and terrible destroyer; and Christ a terrible exactorof obedience, and most amazingly pinching of his love. He can make supposed sinsunpardonable; and unpardonable ones, appear as virtues. He can make the law to bereceived for gospel, and cause that the gospel shall be thrown away as a fable. Hecan persuade, that faith is fancy, and that fancy is the best faith in the world.Besides, he can tickle the heart with false hope of a better life hereafter, evenas if the love of Christ were there. But, as I said before, from all these thingsthe true love of Christ in the right knowledge of it, delivereth those that haveit shed abroad in the heart by the Holy Ghost that he hath given (Rom 5). Whereforeit is for this purpose that Christ biddeth us to continue in his love (John 15:9);because the right knowledge, and faith of that to the soul, disperseth and drivethaway all such fogs, and mists of darkness; and makes the soul to sit fast in thepromise of eternal life by him; yea, and to grow up into him who is the head, "inall things."
Before I leave this head, I will present my reader with these things, as helps tothe knowledge of the love of Christ. I mean the knowledge of the nature of it, andas HELPS to retain it.
Help First, Know thy self, what a vile, horrible, abominable sinner thou art: Forthou canst not know the love of Christ, before thou knowest the badness of thy nature."O wretched man that I am" (Rom 7:24), must be, before a man can perceivethe nature of the love of Christ. He that sees himself but little, will hardly knowmuch of the love of Christ: he that sees of himself nothing at all, will hardly eversee anything of the love of Christ. But he that sees most of what an abominable wretchhe is, he is like to see most of what is the love of Christ. All errors in doctrinetake their rise from the want of this (I mean errors in doctrine as to justification).All the idolizing of men's virtues, and human inventions, riseth also from the wantof this. So then if a man would be kept sure and stedfast, let him labour beforeall things to know his own wretchedness. People naturally think that the knowledgeof their sins is the way to destroy them; when in very deed, it is the first stepto salvation. Now if thou wouldest know the badness of thy self, begin in the firstplace to study the law, then thy heart, and so thy life. The law thou must look into,for that's the glass; thy heart thou must look upon, for that's the face; thy lifethou must look upon, for that's the body of a man, as to religion (James 1:25). Andwithout the wary consideration of these three, 'tis not to be thought that a mancan come at the knowledge of himself, and consequently to the knowledge of the loveof Christ (James 1:26,27).
Help Second, Labour to see the emptiness, shortness, and the pollution that cleavethto a man's own righteousness. This also must in some measure be known, before a mancan know the nature of the love of Christ. They that see nothing of the loathsomenessof man's best things, will think, that the love of Christ is of that nature as tobe procured, or won, obtained or purchased by man's good deeds. And although so muchgospel light is broke forth as to stop men's mouths from saying this, yet 'tis nothingelse but sound conviction of the vileness of man's righteousness, that will enablemen to see that the love of Christ is of that nature, as to save a man without it;as to see that it is of that nature as to justify him without it: I say, withoutit, or not at all. There is shortness, there is hypocrisy, there is a desire of vainglory, there is pride, there is presumption in man's own righteousness: nor can itbe without these wickednesses, when men know not the nature of the love of Christ.Now these defile it, and make it abominable. Yea, if there were no imperfection init, but that which I first did mention, to wit, shortness; how could it cover thenakedness of him that hath it, or obtain for the man, in whole or in part, that Christshould love, and have respect unto him.
Occasions many thou hast given thee to see the emptiness of man's own righteousness,but all will not do unless thou hast help from heaven: wherefore thy wisdom willbe, if thou canst tell where to find it, to lie in the way of God, that when he comesto visit the men that wait upon him in the means of his own appointing, thou mayestbe there; if perhaps he may cast an eye of pity upon thy desolate soul, and makethee see the things above mentioned. That thou mayest know the nature of the loveof Christ.
Help Third, If thou wouldest know the nature of this love, be much in acquaintingof thy soul with the nature of the law, and the nature of the gospel (Gal 3:21).The which though they are not diametrically opposite one to another, yet do propoundthings so differently to man, that if he knows not where, when, and how to take them,'tis impossible but that he should confound them, and in confounding of them, losehis own soul (Rom 9:31,32). The law is a servant, both first and last, to the gospel(Rom 10:3,4): when therefore it is made a Lord, it destroyeth: and then to be sureit is made a Lord and Saviour of, when its dictates and commands are depended uponfor life.
Thy wisdom therefore will be to study these things distinctly, and thoroughly; forso far as thou art ignorant of the true knowledge of the nature of these, so farthou art ignorant of the true knowledge of the nature of the love of Christ. ReadPaul to the Galatians, that epistle was indicted by the Holy Ghost, on purpose todirect the soul, in, and about this very thing.
Help Fourth, The right knowledge of the nature of the love of Christ, is obtained,and retained, by keeping of these two doctrines at an everlasting distance as tothe conscience; to wit, not suffering the law to rule but over my outward man, notsuffering the gospel to be removed one hair's breadth from my conscience. When Christdwells in my heart by faith (Eph 3:17), and the moral law dwells in my members (Col3:5), the one to keep up peace with God, the other to keep my conversation in a gooddecorum: then am I right, and not till then.
But this will not be done without much experience, diligence, and delight in Christ.For there is nothing that Satan more desireth, than that the law may abide in theconscience of an awakened Christian, and there take up the place of Christ, and faith;for he knows if this may be obtained, the vail is presently drawn over the face ofthe soul, and the heart darkened as to the knowledge of Christ; and being darkened,the man is driven into despair of mercy, or is put upon it to work for life (2 Cor3:13-15). There is therefore, as I say, much diligence required of him that willkeep these two in their places assigned them of God. I say much diligent study ofthe word, diligent prayer; with diligence to walk with God in the world. But we willpass this, and come to the second head.
Secondly, As the love of Christ may be known in the nature of it, so it may be knownin many degrees of it. That which is knowable, admits of degrees of knowledge: thelove of Christ is knowable. Again, that which is not possible to be known to theutmost, is to be known, we know not how much; and therefore they that seek to knowit, should never be contented or satisfied to what degree of the knowledge of itsoever they attain; but still should be reaching forward, because there is more tobe known of it before them. "Brethren," said Paul, "I count not myselfto have apprehended, (that is to the utmost) but this one thing I do, forgettingthose things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before,I press towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus"(Phil 3:13,14). I might here discourse of many things, since I am upon this headof reaching after the knowledge of the love of Christ in many of the degrees of it.But I shall content myself with few.
1. He that would know the love of Christ in several degrees of it, must begin athis person, for in him dwells all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Nay, more;In him "are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" (Col 2:3). Inhim, that is, in his person: For, for the godhead of Christ, and our nature to beunited in one person, is the highest mystery, and the first appearance of the loveof Christ by himself, to the world (1 Tim 3:16). Here I say, lie hid the treasuresof wisdom, and here, to the world, springs forth the riches of his love (John 1:14).That the eternal word, for the salvation of sinners, should come down from heavenand be made flesh, is an act of such condescension, a discovery of such love, thatcan never to the full be found out. Only here we may see, love in him was deep, wasbroad, was long, and high: let us therefore first begin here to learn to know thelove of Christ, in the high degrees thereof.
(1.) Here, in the first place, we perceive love, in that the human nature, the natureof man, not of angels, is taken into union with God. Who so could consider this,as it is possible for it to be considered, would stand amazed till he died with wonder.By this very act of the heavenly wisdom, we have an inconceivable pledge of the loveof Christ to man: for in that he hath taken into union with himself our nature, whatdoth it signify, but that he intendeth to take into union with himself our person.For, for this very purpose did he assume our nature. Wherefore we read that in theflesh he took upon him, in that flesh, he died for us, the just for the unjust, thathe might bring us to God (1 Peter 3:18).
(2.) As he was made flesh, so as was said afore, he became a public or common personfor us: and hereby is perceived another degree of his love; undertaking to do forhis, what was not possible they should do for themselves, perfecting of righteousnessto the very end of the law, and doing for us, to the reconciling of us unto his Father,and himself (Rom 10:3,4, 3:24).
(3.) Herein also we may attain to another degree of knowledge of his love, by understandingthat he has conquered, and so disabled our foes, that they cannot now accomplishtheir designed enmity upon us (Rom 5, Eph 5:26,27): but that when Satan, death, thegrave and sin have done to his people, whatever can by them be done, we shall bestill more than conquerors, (though on our side be many disadvantages), through himthat has loved us, over them (Rom 8:37).
(4.) By this also we may yet see more of his love, in that as a forerunner, he isgone into heaven to take possession thereof for us (Heb 6:20): there to make ready,and to prepare for us our summer-houses, our mansion, dwelling-places. As if we werethe lords, and he the servant! (John 14:2,3) Oh this love!
(5.) Also we may see another degree of his love, in this, that now in his absence,he has sent the third person in the Trinity to supply his place as another comforterof us (John 16:7, 15:26), that we may not think he has forgot us, not be left destituteof a revealer of truth unto us (John 14:16). Yea, he has sent him to fortify ourspirits, and to strengthen us under all adversity; and against our enemies of whataccount, or degree soever (Luke 21:15).
(6.) In this also we may see yet more of the love of Christ, in that though he isin heaven and we on earth: Nothing can happen to his people to hurt them, but hefeels it, is touched with it, and counteth it as done unto himself: Yea, sympathizeswith them, and is afflicted, and grieved in their griefs, and their afflictions.
(7.) Another thing by which also yet more of the love of Christ is made manifest,and so may by us be known, is this: He is now, and has been ever since his ascensioninto glory, laying out himself as high-priest for us (Heb 7:24-26), that by the improvingof his merits before the throne of grace, in way of intercession, he might preserveus from the ruins that our daily infirmities would bring upon us (Heb 8:12): yea,and make our persons and performances acceptable in his Father's sight (Rom 5:10,1 Peter 2:5).
(8.) We also see yet more of his love by this, that he will have us where himselfis, that we may behold and be partakers of his glory (John 17:24). And in this degreeof his love, there are many loves.
Then he will come for us, as a bridegroom for his bride (Matt 25:6- 10). Then shalla public marriage be solemnized, and eternized betwixt him and his church (Rev 19:6,7).Then she shall be wrapped up in his mantles and robes of glory (Col 3:4). Then theyshall be separated, and separated from other sinners, and all things that offendshall be taken away from among them (Matt 25:31, 13:41). Then shall they be exaltedto thrones, and power of judgment; and shall also sit in judgment on sinful men andfallen angels, acquiescing, by virtue of authority, with their king and head, uponthem (1 Cor 6:2,3). Then or from thenceforth for ever, there shall be no more death,sorrow, hidings of his face, or eclipsing of their glory for ever (Luke 20:36). Andthus you may see what rounds this our Jacob's ladder hath, and how by them we mayclimb, and climb, even until we are climbed up to heaven: but now we are set again;for all the glories, all the benefits, all the blessings, and all the good thingsthat are laid up in heaven for these; Who can understand?
2. A second thing whereby the love of Christ is some degrees of it may be known,is this: That he should pass by angels and take hold of us. Who so considereth thenature of spirits, as they are God's workmanship, must needs confess, that as such,they have a pre-eminency above that which is made of dust: This then was the disparity'twixt us and them; they being, by birth, far more noble than we. But now, when bothare fallen, and by our fall, both in a state of condemnation, that Jesus Christ shouldchoose to take up us, the most inconsiderable, and pass by them, to their eternalperdition and destruction: O love! love in a high degree to man: For verily he tooknot hold of angels, but of the seed of Abraham he took hold (Heb 2:16). Yet thisis not all: In all probability this Lord Jesus has ten times as much to do now hehas undertaken to be our Saviour, as he would have had, had he stepped over us andtaken hold on them.
(1.) He needed not to have stooped so low as to take flesh upon him; theirs beinga more noble nature.
(2.) Nor would he in all likelihood, have met with those contempts, those scorns,those reproaches and undervaluings from them, as he has all-along received in thishis undertaking, and met with from sinful flesh. For they were more noble than we,and would sooner have perceived the design of grace, and so one would think morereadily have fallen in therewith, than [creatures in] such darkness as we were, andstill by sin are.
(3.) They would not have had those disadvantages as we, for that they would not havehad a tempter, a destroyer, so strong and mighty as ours is. Alas! had God left us,and taken them, though we should have been ever so full of envy against their salvation;yet being but flesh, what could we have done to them to have laid obstacles in theway of their faith and hope, as they can and do in ours?
(4.) They, it may fairly be presumed, had they been taken, and we left, and madepartakers in our sted, while we had been shut out, as they are, would not have putChrist so to it, now in heaven (pray bear with the expression, because I want a better)as we by our imperfections have done and do. Sin, methinks, would not have so hangedin their natures as it doth in ours: their reason, and sense, and apprehensions beingmore quick, and so more apt to have been taken with this love of Christ, and by itmore easily have been sanctified.
(5.) The law which they have broken, being not so intricate, as that against whichwe have offended, theirs being a commandment with faithfulness to abide in the placein which their Creator had set them; methinks, considering also the aptness of theirnatures as angels, would not have made their complete obedience so difficult.
(6.) Nor can I imagine, but had they been taken, they, as creatures excelling instrength, would have been more capable of rendering these praises and blessings toGod for eternal mercies, than such poor sorry creatures as we are, could. But! "beholdwhat manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called thechildren of God" (1 John 3:1). That we, not they, that we notwithstanding allthat they have, or could have done to hinder it, should be called the children ofGod.
This therefore is an high degree of the love of Jesus Christ to us, that when weand they were fallen, he should stoop and take up us, the more ignoble, and leaveso mighty a creature in his sins to perish.
3. A third thing whereby the love of Christ in some of the degrees of it may be known,will be to consider more particularly the way, and unwearied work that he hath withman to bring him to that kingdom, that by his blood he hath obtained for him.
(1.) Man, when the Lord Jesus takes him in hand to make him partaker of the benefit,is found an enemy to his redeemer; nor doth all the intelligence that he has hadof the grace and love of Christ to such, mollify him at all, to wit, before the dayof God's power comes (Rom 4:5, 5:7-10). And this is a strange thing. Had man, thoughhe could not have come to Christ, been willing that Christ should have come to him,it had been something; it would have shewn that he had taken his grace to heart,and considered of it: yea, and that he was willing to be a sharer in it. But verilyhere is no such thing; man, though he has free will, yet is willing by no means tobe saved God's way, to wit, by Jesus Christ, before (as was said before) the dayof God's power comes upon him. When the good shepherd went to look for his sheepthat was lost in the wilderness, and had found it: did it go one step homewards uponits own legs? did not the shepherd take her and lay her upon his shoulder, and bringher home rejoicing (Luke 15). This then is not love only, but love to a degree.
(2.) When man is taken, and laid under the day of God's power: When Christ is openinghis ear to discipline, and speaking to him that his heart may receive instruction;many times that poor man is, as if the devil had found him, and not God. How frenzilyhe imagines? how crossly he thinks? How ungainly he carries it under convictions,counsels, and his present apprehension of things? I know some are more powerfullydealt withal, and more strongly bound at first by the world; but others more in anordinary manner, that the flesh, and reason may be seen, to the glory of Christ.Yea, and where the will is made more quickly to comply with its salvation, 'tis nothanks to the sinner at all (Job 4:18). 'Tis the day of the power of the Lord thathas made the work so soon to appear. Therefore count this an act of love, in theheight of love; Love in a great degree (John 15:16).
(3.) When Christ Jesus has made this mad man to come to himself, and persuaded himto be willing to accept of his salvation: yet he may not be trusted, nor left alone,for then the corruptions that still lie scattering up and down in his flesh willtempt him to it, and he will be gone; yea, so desperately wicked is the flesh ofsaints, that should they be left to themselves but a little while, none knows whathorrible transgressions would break out. Proof of this we have to amazement, plentifullyscattered here and there in the word. Hence we have the patience of God, and hisgentleness so admired (2 Chron 32:21): for through that it is that they are preserved.He that keepeth Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps (Psa 121:4), but watches for them,and over them every moment, for he knows else they will be hurt (Isa 27:3).
(4.) Yea, notwithstanding this, how often are saints found playing truant, and lurkinglike thieves in one hole or other. Now, in the guilt of backsliding by the powerof this, and then in filth by the power of that corruption (Jer 2:26). Yea, and whenfound in such decayings, and under such revoltings from God, how commonly do theyhide their sin with Adam, and David, even until their Saviour fireth out of theirmouths a confession of the truth of their naughtiness. "When I keep silence,"said David, (and yet he chose to keep silence after he had committed his wickedness)"my bones waxed old through my roaring all the day long. For day and night thyhand was heavy upon me, my moisture is turned into the drought of summer" (Psa32:3,4). but why didst thou not confess what thou hadst done then? So I did, saithhe, at last, and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin (verse 5).
(5.) When the sins of saints are so visible and apparent to others, that God forthe vindication of his name and honour must punish them in the sight of others; yea,must do it, as he is just: Yet then for Christ's sake, he waveth such judgments,and refuseth to inflict such punishments as naturally tend to their destruction,and chooseth to chastise them with such rods and scourges, as may do them good inthe end; and that they may not be condemned with the world (1 Cor 11:31,32). Whereforethe Lord loves them, and they are blessed, whom he chasteneth and teacheth out ofhis law (Heb 12:5-8, Psa 94:12). And these things are love to a degree.
(6.) That Christ should supply out of his fullness the beginnings of grace in oursouls, and carry on that work of so great concern, and that which at times we haveso little esteem of, is none of the least of the aggravations of the love of Christto his people. And this work is as common as any of the works of Christ, and as necessaryto our salvation, as is his righteousness, and the imputation thereof to our justification:For else how could we hold out to the end (Matt 24:13); and yet none else can besaved.
(7.) And that the love of Christ should be such to us that he will thus act, thusdo to, and for us, with gladness; (as afore is manifest by the parable of the lostsheep) is another degree of his love towards us: And such an one too, as is noneof the lowest rate. I have seen hot love, soon cold; and love that has continuedto act, yet act towards the end, as the man that by running, and has run himselfoff his legs, pants, and can hardly run any longer: but I never saw love like thelove of Christ, who as a giant, and bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and asa strong man, rejoiceth to run his race (Psa 19:5). Loving higher and higher, strongerand stronger, I mean as to the lettings out of love, for he reserveth the best wineeven till the last (John 2:10).
(8.) I will conclude with this, that his love may be known in many degrees of it,by that sort of sinners whose salvation he most rejoiceth in, and that is, in thesalvation of the sinners that are of the biggest size: Great sinners, Jerusalem sinners,Samaritan sinners, publican sinners. I might urge moreover, how he hath proportionedinvitations, promises and examples of his love, for the encouragement and supportof those whose souls would trust in him: By which also great degrees of his lovemay be understood. But we will come now to the third thing that was propounded.
Thirdly, But the greatest attainment that as to the understanding of the love ofChrist, we can arrive to here, is to know that it passes knowledge: And to know thelove of Christ that passeth knowledge. This truth discovereth itself,
1. By the text itself, for the Apostle here, in this prayer of his for the Ephesians,doth not only desire that they may know, but describeth that thing which he praysthey may know, by this term, It passeth knowledge. And to know the love of Christwhich passeth knowledge. As our reason and carnal imagination will be rudely, andunduly tampering with any thing of Christ, so more especially with the love and kindnessof Christ: Judging and concluding that just such it is, and none other, as may beapprehended by them: Yea, and will have a belief that just so, and no otherwise arethe dimensions of this love; nor can it save beyond our carnal conceptions of it.Saying to the soul as Pharaoh once did to Israel in another case: "Let the Lordbe with you as I shall" (judge it meet he should) "let you go." Wethink Christ loves us no more than we do think he can, and so conclude that his loveis such as may by us be comprehended, or known to the utmost bounds thereof. Butthese are false conceptions, and this love of Christ that we think is such, is indeednone of the love of Christ, but a false image thereof, set before our eyes. I speaknot now of weak knowledge, but of foolish and bold conclusions. A man through unbeliefmay think that Christ has no love for him, and yet Christ may love him with a lovethat passeth knowledge. But when men in the common course of their profession, willbe always terminating here, that they know how, and how far Christ can love, andwill thence be bold to conclude of their own safety, and of the loss and ruin ofall that are not in the same notions, opinions, formalities, or judgments as they:this is the worst and greatest of all. The text therefore, to rectify those falseand erroneous conclusions, says, It is a love that passeth knowledge.
And it will be worth our observation to take notice that men, erroneous men, do notput these limits so commonly to the Father and his love, as [to] the Son and his.Hence you have some that boast that God can save some who have not the knowledgeof the person of the mediator Jesus Christ the righteous; as the heathens that have,and still do make a great improvement of the law and light of nature: crying outwith disdain against the narrowness, rigidness, censoriousness, and pride of thosethat think the contrary. Being not ashamed all the while to eclipse, to degrade,to lessen and undervalue the love of Jesus Christ; making of him and his undertakings,to offer himself a sacrifice to appease the justice of God for our sins, but a thingindifferent, and in its own nature but as other smaller matters.
But all this while the devil knows full well at what game he plays, for he knowsthat without Christ, without faith in his blood, there is no remission of sins. Wherefore,saith he, let these men talk what they will of the greatness of the love of God ascreator, so they sleight and undervalue the love of Christ as mediator. And yet itis worth our consideration, that the greatness of the love of God is most expressedin his giving of Christ to be a Saviour, and in bestowing his benefits upon us thatwe may be happy through him.
But to return, The love of Christ that is so indeed, is love that passeth knowledge:and the best and highest of our knowledge of it is, that we know it to be such.
2. Because I find that at this point, the great men of God, of old, were wont tostop, be set, and beyond which they could not pass. 'Twas this that made Moses wonder(Deu 4:31-34). 'Twas this that made David cry out, How great and wonderful are theworks of God? "thy thoughts to usward: they cannot be reckoned up in order untothee: If I would declare and speak of them, they are more than can be numbered"(Psa 40:5). And again, "How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, O God! howgreat is the sum of them! If I should count them, they are more in number than thesand" (Psa 139:17,18). And a little before, "such knowledge is too wonderfulfor me" (verse 6). Isaiah saith, there hath not entered into the heart of manwhat God has prepared for them that wait for him (Isa 64:4). Ezekiel says, this isthe river that cannot be passed over (47:5): And Micah to the sea, (7:19) and Zechariahto a fountain, hath compared this unsearchable love (13:1). Wherefore the Apostle'sposition, That the love of Christ is that which passeth knowledge, is a truth notto be doubted of: Consequently, to know this, and that it is such, is the farthestthat we can go. This is to justify God, who has said it, and to magnify the Son,who has loved us with such a love: And the contrary is to dishonour him, to lessenhim, and to make him a deficient Saviour. For suppose this should be true, that thoucouldest to the utmost comprehend this love; yet unless, by thy knowledge thou canstcomprehend beyond all evil of sin, or beyond what any man sins, who shall be saved,can spread themselves or infect: Thou must leave some pardonable man in an unpardonablecondition. For that thou canst comprehend this love, and yet canst not comprehendthat sin. This makes Christ a deficient Saviour. Besides, if thou comprehendest truly;the word that says, it passeth knowledge, hast lost its sanctity, its truth.
It must therefore be, that this love passeth knowledge; and that the highest pitchthat a man by knowledge can attain unto, as to this, is to know that it passeth knowledge.My reason is, for that all degrees of love, be they never so high, or many, and high,yet, if we can comprehend them, rest in the bowels of our knowledge, for that onlywhich is beyond us, is that which passeth knowledge. That which we can reach, cannotbe the highest: And if a man thinks there is nothing beyond what he can reach, hehas no more knowledge as to that: but if he knows that together with what he hathalready reached, there is that which he cannot reach, before [him]; then he has aknowledge for that also, even a knowledge, that it passeth knowledge. 'Tis true aman that thus knoweth may have divers conjectures about that thing that is beyondhis knowledge. Yea, in reason it will be so, because he knows that there is somethingyet before him: But since the thing itself is truly beyond his knowledge, none ofhis conjectures about that thing may be counted knowledge. Or suppose a man thatthus conjectureth, should hit right as to what he now conjectures; his right hittingabout that thing may not be called knowledge: It is as yet to him but as an uncertainguess, and is still beyond this knowledge.
Quest. But, may some say, what good will it do a man to know that the love of Christpasseth knowledge? one would think that it should do one more good to believe thatthe knowledge of the whole love of Christ might be attainable.
Answer. That there is an advantage in knowing that the love of Christ passeth knowledge;must not be questioned, for that the Apostle saith it doth (2 Tim 3:16). For to knowwhat the holy word affirms, is profitable: nor would he pray that we might know thatwhich passeth knowledge, were there not by our knowing of it, some help to be administered.But to shew you some of the advantages that will come to us by knowing that the loveof Christ passeth knowledge.
(1.) By knowing of this a child of God has in reserve for himself, at a day, whenall that he otherwise knows, may be taken from him through the power of temptation.Sometimes a good man may be so put to it, that all that he knows comprehensivelymay be taken from him: to wit, the knowledge of the truth of his faith, or that hehas the grace of God in him, or the like, that I say may be taken from him. Now ifat this time, he knows the love of Christ that passeth knowledge, he knows a wayin all probability to be recovered again. For if Christ Jesus loves with a love thatpasseth knowledge: then, saith the soul, that is thus in the dark, he may love meyet, for ought I know, for I know that he loves with a love that passeth knowledge;and therefore I will not utterly despond. Yea, if Satan should attempt to questionwhether ever Christ Jesus will look upon me or no: the answer is, if I know the lovethat passes knowledge: But he may look upon me, (O, Satan) yea, and love, and saveme too, for ought I poor sinner know; for he loves with a love that passeth knowledge.If I be fallen into sin that lies hard upon me, and my conscience fears, that forthis there is no forgiveness. The help for a stay from utter despair is at hand:but there may, say I, for Christ loves, with a love that passeth knowledge. If Satanwould dissuade me from praying to God, by suggesting as if Christ would not regardthe stammering, and chattering prayer of mine. The answer is ready, but he may regardfor ought I know; for he loves with a love that passeth knowledge. If the tempterdoth suggest that thy trials, and troubles, and afflictions, are so many, that itis to be thought thou shall never get beyond them. The answer is near, but for oughtwe know, Christ may carry me through them all, for he loves with a love that passethknowledge. Thus I say, is relief at hand, and a help in reserve for the tempted,let their temptations be what they will. This therefore is the weapon that will bafflethe devil when all other weapons fail; for ought I know, Christ may save me, forhe loves with a love that passeth knowledge. Yea, suppose he should drive me to theworst of fears, and that is to doubt that I neither have nor shall have for everthe grace of God in my soul. The answer is at hand, but I have or may have it, forChrist loves with a love that passeth knowledge. Thus therefore you may see thatin this prayer of Paul, there is a great deal of good. He prays, when he prays thatwe might know the love of Christ that passeth knowledge: that we may have a helpat hand, and relief against all the horrible temptations of the devil. For this isa help at hand, a help that is ready to fall in with us, if there be yet remainingwith us, but the least grain of right reasoning according to the nature of things.For if it be objected against a man that he is poor, because he has but a groat inhis pocket; yet if he has an unknown deal of money in his trunks, how easy is itfor him to recover himself from that slander, by returning the knowledge of whathe has, upon the objector. This is the case, and thus it is, and will be with themthat know the love of Christ that passeth knowledge. Wherefore,
(2.) By this knowledge, room is made for a Christian, and liberty is ministered untohim, to turn himself every way in all spiritual things. This is the Christian's rehoboth,that well for which the Philistines have no heart to strive, and that which willcause that we be fruitful in the land (Gen 26:22).
If Christians know not with this knowledge, they walk in the world as if they werepinioned; or as if fetters were hanged on their heels. But this enlarged their stepsunder them (2 Sam 22:37): by the knowledge of this love they may walk at liberty,and their steps shall not be straitened. This is that which Solomon intends whenhe saith, "Get wisdom, and get understanding" (Prov 4:5). Then "whenthou goest, thy steps shall not be straitened, and when thou runnest, thou shaltnot stumble" (Prov 4:12). A man that has only from hand to mouth, is oft putto it to know how to use his penny, and comes off also, many times, but with an hungrybelly; but he that has, not only that, but always over and to spare, he is more atliberty, and can live in fullness, and far more like a gentleman. There is a manhas a cistern, and that is full of water: there is another also, that has his cisternfull, and withal, his spring in his yard; but a great drought is upon the land inwhich they dwell: I would now know, which of these two have the most advantage tolive in their own minds at liberty, without fear of wanting water? Why this is thecase in hand. There is a Christian that knows Christ in all those degrees of hislove that are knowable, but he knoweth Christ nothing in his love that passeth knowledge.There is another Christian, and he knows Christ, as the first, but withal, he alsoknows him as to his love that passeth knowledge. Pray now tell me, which of thesetwo are likeliest to live most like a Christian, that is, like a spiritual prince,and like him that possesseth all things? which has most advantage to live in godlylargeness of heart, and is most at liberty in his mind? which of these two have thegreatest advantage to believe, and the greatest engagements laid upon him to lovethe Lord Jesus? which of these have also most in readiness to resist the wiles ofthe devil, and to subdue the power and prevalency of corruptions? 'Tis this, thatmakes men fathers in Christianity. "I write unto you, fathers, because ye haveknown; - - I have written unto you, fathers, because ye have known" (1 John2:13-14), why, have not others known, not so as the fathers? The fathers have knownand known. They have known the love of Christ in those degrees of love which areknowable, and have also known the love of Christ to be such which passeth knowledge.In my father's house is bread enough and to spare, was that that fetched the prodigalhome (Luke 15:17). And when Moses would speak an endless all to Israel, for the comfortand stay of their souls, he calls their God, "The fountain of Jacob upon a landof corn and wine" (Deu 33:28).
(3.) By this knowledge, or knowing of the love of Christ which passeth knowledge,there is begot in Christians a greater desire to press forwards to that which isbefore them (Phil 3:12-21). What is the reason of all that sloth, carnal contentedness,and listlessness of spirit in Christians, more than the ignorance of this. For hethat thinks he knows what can be known, is beyond all reason that should induce himto seek yet after more. Now the love of Christ may be said, not to be knowable, upona threefold account: [namely]. For that my knowledge is weak. For that my knowledgeis imperfect. Or for that, though my knowledge be never so perfect, because the loveof Christ is eternal.
There is love that is not to be apprehended by weak knowledge. Convince a man ofthis, and then, if the knowledge of what he already has, be truly sweet to his soul(Prov 2:10), it will stir him up with great heartiness to desire to know what moreof this is possible.
There is love beyond what he knows already, who is indued with the most perfect knowledge,that man here may have. Now if what this man knows already of this love is indeedsweet unto him; then it puts him upon hearty desires that his soul may yet know more.And because there is no bound set to man, how much he may know in this life thereof;therefore his desires, notwithstanding what he has attained, are yet kept alive,and in the pursuit after the knowledge of more of the love of Christ. And God inold time has taken it so well at the hands of some of his, that their desires havebeen so great, that when, as I may say, they have known as much on earth as is possiblefor them to know; (that is by ordinary means) he has come down to them in visionsand revelations; or else taken them up to him for an hour or two into paradise, thatthey might know, and then let them down again.
But this is not all, There is a knowledge of the love of Christ, that we are by nomeans capable of until we be possessed of the heavens. And I would know, if a manindeed loveth Christ, whether the belief of this be not one of the highest argumentsthat can be urged, to make such an one weary of this world, that he may be with him.To such an one, "to live is Christ, and to die is gain" (Phil 1:21-23).And to such an one, it is difficult to bring his mind to be content to stay herea longer time; except he be satisfied that Christ has still work for him here todo.
I will yet add, There is a love of Christ, I will not say, that cannot be known,but I will say, that cannot be enjoyed; no, not by them now in heaven (in soul) untilthe day of judgment. And the knowledge of this, when it has possessed even men onearth, has made them choose a day of judgment, before a day of death, that they mightknow what is beyond that state and knowledge which even the spirits of just men madeperfect, now do enjoy in heaven (2 Cor 5:4). Wherefore, as I said at first, To knowthe love of Christ that passeth knowledge, is advantageous upon this account; itbegetteth in Christians a great desire to reach, and press forward to that whichis before.
One thing more, and then, as to this reason, I have done. Even that love of Christthat is absolutely unknowable, as to the utmost bound thereof because it is eternal,will be yet in the nature of it sweet and desirable, because we shall enjoy or bepossessed of it so. This therefore, if there were no more, is enough, when known,to draw away the heart from things that are below, to itself.
(4.) The love that passeth knowledge. The knowledge of that is a very fruitful knowledge.It cannot be, but it must be fruitful. Some knowledge is empty, and alone, not attendedwith that good, and with those blessings wherewith this knowledge is attended. DidI say, it is fruitful? I will add, it is attended with the best fruit; it yieldeththe best wine: It fills the soul with all the fullness of God. "And to knowthe love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that ye may be filled with all the fullnessof God." God is in Christ, and makes himself known to us by the love of Christ."Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath notGod," for God is not to be found nor enjoyed, but in him, consequently, he thathath, and abideth in the doctrine of Christ, "hath both the Father and the Son"(2 John 9). Now, since there are degrees of knowledge of this doctrine, and sincethe highest degree of the knowledge of him, is to know that he has a Love that passethknowledge, it follows, that if he that has the least saving knowledge of this doctrine,hath God; he that hath the largest knowledge of it, has God much more, or, accordingto the text, is filled with all the fullness of God. What this fullness of God shouldbe, is best gathered from such sayings of the Holy Ghost, as come nearest to this,in language, filled,
Full of goodness (Rom 15:14).
Full of faith (Acts 6:5).
Full of the Holy Ghost (Acts 7:55).
Full of assurance of faith (Heb 10:22).
Full of assurance of hope (Heb 6:11).
Full of joy unspeakable, and full of glory (1 Peter 1:8).
Full of joy (1 John 1:4).
Full of good works (Acts 11:36).
Being filled with the knowledge of his will (Col 1:9).
Being filled with the spirit (Eph 5:18).
Filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ unto the gloryand praise of God (Phil 4:11). These things to be sure are included either for thecause or effect of this fullness. The cause they cannot be, for that is God's, byhis Holy Spirit. The effects therefore they are, for wherever God dwells in the degreeintended in the text, there is shewn in an eminent manner, by these things, "whatis the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints" (Eph 1:18). Butthese things dwell not in that measure specified by the text, in any, but those whoknow the love of Christ which passeth knowledge.
But what a man is he that is filled with all these things! or that is, as we haveit in the text, "filled with all the fullness of God!" Such men are, atthis day, wanting in the churches. These are the men that sweeten churches, and thatbring glory to God and to religion. And knowledge will make us such, such knowledgeas the Apostle here speaketh of.
I have now done, when I have spoken something by way of USE unto you, from what hathbeen said. And,
Use First, Is there such breadth, and length, and depth, and height in God, for us?And is there toward us love in Christ that passeth knowledge? Then this shews us,not only the greatness of the majesty of the Father and the Son, but the great goodwill that is in their heart to them that receive their word.
God has engaged the breadth, and length and depth, and height of the love, the wisdom,the power, and truth that is in himself, for us; and Christ has loved us with a lovethat passeth knowledge. We may well say, "Who is like thee, O Lord, among thegods?" (Exo 15:11). Or, as another prophet has it, "Who is a God like untothee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant ofhis heritage? he retaineth not his anger for ever: because he delighteth in mercy"(Micah 7:18). Yea, no words can sufficiently set forth the greatness of this loveof God and his Son to us poor miserable sinners.
Use Second, Is there so great a heart for love, towards us, both in the Father andin the Son? Then let us be much in the study and search after the greatness of thislove. This is the sweetest study that a man can devote himself unto; because it isthe study of the love of God and of Christ to man. Studies that yield far less profitthan this, how close are they pursued, by some who have adapted themselves thereunto?Men do not use to count telling over of their money burdensome to them, nor yet therecounting of their grounds, their herds, and their flocks, when they increase. Why?the study of the unsearchable love of God in Christ to man, is better in itself,and yields more sweetness to the soul of man, than can ten thousand such things asbut now are mentioned. I know the wise men of this world, of whom there are many,will say as to what I now press you unto; Who can shew us any good in it? But Lord,lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us. Thou hast put gladness in my heart,more than in the time that their corn and their wine increaseth (Psa 4:6,7). Davidalso said that his meditation on the Lord should be sweet. Oh, there is in God andin his Son, that kindness for the sons of men, that, did they know it, they wouldlike to retain the knowledge of it in their hearts. They would cry out as she didof old; "Set me as a seal upon thy heart, as a seal upon thine arm: For loveis strong as death" (Song 8:6,7). Every part, crumb, grain, or scrap of thisknowledge, is to a Christian, as drops of honey are to sweet- palated children, worththe gathering up, worth the putting to the taste to be relished. Yea, David saysof the word which is the ground of knowledge: "It is sweeter than honey or thehoney-comb. More," saith he, "to be desired are they than gold; yea, thanmuch fine gold; sweeter also than honey or the honey- comb" (Psa 19:10). Whythen do not Christians devote themselves to the meditation of this so heavenly, sogoodly, so sweet, and so comfortable a thing, that yieldeth such advantage to thesoul?
The reason is, these things are talked of, but not believed: did men believe whatthey say, when they speak so largely of the love of God, and the love of Jesus Christ,they would, they could not but meditate upon it. There are so many wonders in it,and men love to think of wonders. There is so much profit in it, and men love tothink of that which yields them profit. But, as I said, the belief of things is wanting.Belief of a thing will have strong effects, whether the ground for it be true, orfalse. As suppose one of you should, when you are at a neighbour's house, believethat your own house is on fire, whilst your children are fast asleep in bed, thoughindeed there were no such thing; I will appeal to any of you if this belief wouldnot make notable work with and upon your hearts. Let a man believe he shall be damned,though afterwards it is evident he believed a lie, yet what work did that beliefmake in that man's heart; even so, and much more, the belief of heavenly things willwork, because true and great, and most good; also, where they are indeed believed,their evidence is managed upon their spirit, by the power and glory of the Holy Ghostitself: Wherefore let us study these things.
Use Third, Let us cast ourselves upon this love. No greater encouragement can begiven us, than what is in the text and about it. It is great, it is love that passethknowledge. Men that are sensible of danger, are glad when they hear of such helpsupon which they may boldly venture for escape. Why such an help and relief, the texthelpeth trembling and fearful consciences to. Fear and trembling as to misery hereafter,can flow but from what we know, feel, or imagine: but the text speaks of a love thatis beyond that we can know, feel, or imagine, even of a love that passeth knowledge;consequently of a love that goes beyond all these. Besides, the Apostle's conclusionupon this subject, plainly makes it manifest that this meaning which I have put uponthe text, is the mind of the Holy Ghost. "Now unto him," saith he, "thatis able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to thepower that worketh in us, unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus, throughoutall ages, world without end. Amen" (Eph 3:20,21). What can be more plain? whatcan be more full? What can be more suitable to the most desponding spirit in anyman? He can do more than thou knowest he will. He can do more than thou thinkesthe can. What dost thou think? why, I think, saith the sinner, that I am cast away.Well, but there are worse thoughts than these, therefore think again. Why, saiththe sinner, I think that my sins are as many as the sins of all the world. Indeedthis is a very black thought, but there are worse thoughts than this, therefore pritheethink again. Why, I think, saith the sinner, that God is not able to pardon all mysins. Ay, now thou hast thought indeed. For this thought makes thee look more likea devil than a man, and yet because thou art a man and not a devil, see the condescensionand the boundlessness of the love of thy God. He is able to do above all that wethink! Couldest thou (sinner) if thou hadst been allowed, thyself express what thouwouldest have expressed, the greatness of the love thou wantest, with words thatcould have suited thee better? for 'tis not said he can do above what we think, meaningour thinking at present, but above all we can think, meaning above the worst andmost soul-dejecting thoughts that we have at any time.
Sometimes the dejected have worse thoughts than at other times they have. Well, takethem at their worst times, at times when they think, and think, till they think themselvesdown into the very pangs of hell; yet this word of the grace of God, is above them,and shews that he can yet recover and save these miserable people. And now I am uponthis subject, I will a little further walk and travel with the desponding ones, andwill put a few words in their mouths for their help against temptations that maycome upon them hereafter. For as Satan follows such now, with charges and applicationsof guilt, so he may follow them with interrogatories and appeals: for he can tellhow by appeals, as well as by charging of sin, to sink and drown the sinner whosesoul he has leave to engage. Suppose therefore that some distressed man or woman,should after this way be engaged, and Satan should with his interrogatories, andappeals be busy with them to drive them to desperation; the text last mentioned,to say nothing of the subject of our discourse, yields plenty of help for the reliefof such an one. Says Satan, dost thou not know that thou hast horribly sinned? yes,says the soul, I do. Says Satan, dost thou not know, that thou art one of the vilestin all the pack of professors? yes, says the soul, I do. Says Satan, doth not thyconscience tell thee that thou art and hast been more base than any of thy fellowscan imagine thee to be? Yes, says the soul; my conscience tells me so. Well, saithSatan, now will I come upon thee with my appeals. Art thou not a graceless wretch?Yes. Hast thou an heart to be sorry for this wickedness? No, not as I should. Andalbeit, saith Satan, thou prayest sometimes, yet is not thy heart possessed witha belief that God will not regard thee? yes, says the sinner. Why then despair, andgo hang thyself, saith the devil. And now we are at the end of the thing designedand driven at by Satan. But what shall I now do, saith the sinner; I answer, takeup the words of the text against him, Christ loves with a love that passeth knowledge,and answereth him farther, saying Satan, though I cannot think that God loves me;though I cannot think that God will save me; yet I will not yield to thee: for Godcan do more than I think he can. And whereas thou appealest unto me, if whether whenI pray, my heart is not possessed with unbelief that God will not regard me; thatshall not sink me neither: for God can do abundantly above what I ask or think. Thusthis text helpeth, where obstructions are put in against our believing, and therebycasting ourselves upon the love of God in Christ for salvation.
And yet this is not all, for the text is yet more full: "He is able to do abundantlymore," yea, "exceeding abundantly more," or "above all that weask or think." It is a text made up of words picked and packed together by thewisdom of God, picked and packed together on purpose for the succour and relief ofthe tempted, that they may when in the midst of their distresses, cast themselvesupon the Lord their God. He can do abundantly more than we ask. Oh! says the soul,that he would but do so much for me as I could ask him to do! How happy a man shouldI then be. Why, what wouldest thou ask for, sinner? you may be sure, says the soul,I would ask to be saved from my sins; I would ask for faith in, and love to, Christ;I would ask to be preserved in this evil world, and ask to be glorified with Christin heaven. He that asketh of all this, doth indeed ask for much, and for more thanSatan would have him believe that God is able or willing to bestow upon him; butmark, the text doth not say, that God is able to do all that we can ask or think,but that he is able to do above all, yea, abundantly above all, yea, exceeding abundantlyabove all that we ask or think. What a text is this! What a God have we! God foresawthe sins of his people, and what work the devil would make with their hearts aboutthem, and therefore to prevent their ruin by his temptation, he has thus largely,as you see, expressed his love by his word. Let us therefore, as has been biddenus, make this good use of this doctrine of grace, as to cast ourselves upon thislove of God in the times of distress and temptation.
Use Fourth, Take heed of abusing this love. This exhortation seems needless; forlove is such a thing, that one would think none could find in their heart to abuse.But for all that, I am of opinion, that there is nothing that is more abused amongprofessors this day, than is this love of God. There has of late more light aboutthe love of Christ broke out, than formerly: every boy now can talk of the love ofChrist; but this love of Christ has not been rightly applied by preachers, or elsenot rightly received by professors. For never was this grace of Christ so turnedinto lasciviousness, as now. Now it is a practice among professors to learn to bevile, of the profane. Yea, and to plead for that vileness: Nay, we will turn it theother way, now it is so that the profane do learn to be vile of those that profess(They teach the wicked ones their ways): a thing that no good man should think onbut with blushing cheeks (Jer 2:33). Jude speaketh of these people, and tellsus that they, notwithstanding their profession, deny the only Lord God, and our SaviourJesus Christ (verse 4). "They profess," saith Paul, "that they knowGod; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto everygood work reprobate" (Titus 1:16).
But I say, let not this love of God and of Christ, be abused. 'Tis unnatural to abuselove, to abuse love is a villany condemned of all, yea, to abuse love, is the mostinexcusable sin of all. It is next the sin of devils to abuse love, the love of Godand of Christ.
And what says the Apostle? "Because they received not the love of the truth,that they might be saved, therefore God shall send them strong delusion that theyshould believe a lie, that they all might be damned, who believed not the truth,but had pleasure in unrighteousness" (2 Thess 2:10-12). And what can such anone say for himself in the judgment, that shall be charged with the abuse of love?Christians, deny yourselves, deny your lusts, deny the vanities of this present life,devote yourselves to God; become lovers of God, lovers of his ways, and "a peoplezealous of good works"; then shall you show one to another, and to all men,that you have not received the grace of God in vain (2 Cor 6:1). Renounce thereforethe hidden things of dishonesty, walk not in craftiness, nor handle God's word deceitfully,but by manifestation of the truth, commend yourselves to every man's conscience inthe sight of God. Do this, I say, yea, and so endeavour such a closure with thislove of God in Christ, as may graciously constrain you to do it, because, when allproofs of the right receiving of this love of Christ shall be produced, none willbe found of worth enough to justify the simplicity of our profession, but that whichmakes us "zealous of good works" (Titus 2:14). And what a thing will itbe to be turned off at last, as one that abused the love of Christ! as one that presumedupon his lusts, this world, and all manner of naughtiness, because the love of Christto pardon sins was so great! What an unthinking, what a disingenuous one wilt thoube counted at that day! yea, thou wilt be found to be the man that made a prey oflove, that made a stalking-horse of love, that made of love a slave to sin, the deviland the world, and will not that be bad? (Read Eze 16)
Use Fifth, Is the love of God and of Christ so great? let us then labour to improveit to the utmost for our advantage, against all the hindrances of faith.
To what purpose else is it revealed, made mention of, and commended to us? We areenvironed with many enemies, and faith in the love of God and of Christ, is our onlysuccour and shelter. Wherefore our duty and wisdom and privilege is, to improve thislove for our own advantage. Improve it against daily infirmities, improve it againstthe wiles of the devil; improve it against the threats, rage, death, and destruction,that the men of this world continually with their terror set before you. But howmust that be done? why, set this love and the safety that is in it, before thineeyes; and behold it while these things make their assaults upon thee. These words,the faith of this, God loves me, will support thee in the midst of what dangers mayassault thee. And this is that which is meant, when we are exhorted to rejoice inthe Lord (Phil 3:1), to make our boast in the Lord (Psa 44:8); to triumph in Christ(2 Cor 2:14); and to set the Lord always before our face (Psa 16:8). For he thatcan do this thing stedfastly, cannot be overcome. For in God there is more than canbe in the world, either to help or hinder; wherefore if God be my helper, if Godloves me, if Christ be my redeemer, and has bestowed his love that passeth knowledgeupon me, who can be against me? (Heb 13:6, Rom 8:31) and if they be against me, whatdisadvantage reap I thereby; since even all this also, worketh for my good? Thisis improving the love of God and of Christ for my advantage. The same course shouldChristians also take with the degrees of this love, even set it against all the degreesof danger; for here deep calleth unto deep. There cannot be wickedness and rage wroughtup to such or such a degree, as of which it may be said, there are not degrees inthe love of God and of Christ to match it. Wherein Pharaoh dealt proudly againstGod's people, the Lord was above him (Exo 18:11), did match and overmatch him; hecame up to him, and went beyond him; he collared with him, overcame him, and casthim down. "The Lord is a man of war, the Lord is his name.
Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea - - they sank into thebottom as a stone" (Exo 15:5). There is no striving against the Lord that hathloved us; there is none that strive against him can prosper. If the shields of theearth be the Lord's (Psa 47:9), then he can wield them for the safeguard of his bodythe church; or if they are become incapable of being made use of any longer in thatway, and for such a thing, can he not lay them aside, and make himself new ones?Men can do after this manner, much more God. But again, if the miseries, or afflictionswhich thou meetest with, seem to thee to overflow, and to go beyond measure, abovemeasure, and so to be above strength, and begin to drive thee to despair of life(2 Cor 1:8); then thou hast also, in the love of God, and of Christ, that which isabove, and that goes beyond all measure also, to wit, love unsearchable, unknown,and "that can do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think."Now God hath set them one against the other, and 'twill be thy wisdom to do so too,for this is the way to improve this love. But, though it be easy, thus to admonishyou to do, yet you shall find the practical part more difficult; wherefore, hereit may not be amiss, if I add to these, another head of COUNSEL.
Counsel First, Then, Wouldest thou improve this love of God and of Christ to thyadvantage, Why then thou must labour after the knowledge of it. This was it thatthe Apostle prayed for, for these Ephesians, as was said before, and this is thatthat thou must labour after, or else thy reading and my writing, will, as to thee,be fruitless. Let me then say to thee, as David to his son Solomon, "And thouSolomon, my son, know thou the God of thy father" (1 Chron 28:9). Empty notionsof this love will do nothing but harm, wherefore, they are not empty notions thatI press thee to rest in, but that thou labour after the knowledge of the favour ofthis good ointment (Song 1:3), which the Apostle calleth the favour of the knowledgeof this Lord Jesus (2 Cor 2:14). Know it, until it becometh sweet or pleasant tothy soul, and then it will preserve and keep thee (Prov 2:10,11). Make this loveof God and of Christ thine own, and not another's. Many there are that can talk largelyof the love of God to Abraham, to David, to Peter and Paul. But that is not the thing,give not over until this love be made thine own; until thou find and feel it to runwarm in thy heart by the shedding of it abroad there, by the spirit that God hathgiven thee (Rom 5:5). Then thou wilt know it with an obliging and engaging knowledge;yea, then thou wilt know it with a soul- strengthening, and soul-encouraging knowledge.
Counsel Second, Wouldest thou improve this love? then set it against the love ofall other things whatsoever, even until this love shall conquer thy soul from thelove of them to itself.
This is Christian. Do it therefore, and say, why should any thing have my heart butGod, but Christ? He loves me, he loves me with love that passeth knowledge. He lovesme, and he shall have me: he loves me, and I will love him: his love stripped himof all for my sake; Lord let my love strip me of all for thy sake. I am a son oflove, an object of love, a monument of love, of free love, of distinguishing love,of peculiar love, and of love that passeth knowledge: and why should not I walk inlove? In love to God, in love to men, in holy love, in love unfeigned? This is theway to improve the love of God for thy advantage, for the subduing of thy passions,and for sanctifying of thy nature. 'Tis an odious thing to hear men of base livestalking of the love of God, of the death of Christ, and of the glorious grace thatis presented unto sinners by the word of the truth of the gospel. Praise is comelyfor the upright, not for the profane. Therefore let him speak of love that is takenwith love, that is captivated with love, that is carried away with love. If thisman speaks of it, his speaking signifies something; the powers, and bands of loveare upon him, and he shews to all that he knows what he is speaking of. But the verymentioning of love, is in the mouth of the profane, like a parable in the mouth offools, or as salt unsavory. Wherefore, Christian, improve this love of God as thoushouldest, and that will improve thee as thou wouldest. Wherefore,
Counsel Third, If thou wouldest improve this love, keep thyself in it. "Keepyourselves in the love of God" (Jude 21). This text looks as if it favouredthe Socinians, but there is nothing of that in it. And so doth that, "If yekeep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love: even as I have kept my Father'scommandments and abide in his love" (John 15:10). The meaning then is this,that living a holy life is the way, after a man has believed unto justification,to keep himself in the savour and comfort of the love of God. And Oh, that thou wouldestindeed so do. And that because, if thou shall want the savour of it, thou will soonwant tenderness to the commandment, which is the rule by which thou must walk, ifthou wilt do good to thyself, or honour God in the world. "To him that orderethhis conversation aright, will I shew the salvation of God" (Psa 50:23). He thatwould live a sweet, comfortable, joyful life, must live a very holy life. This isthe way to improve this love to thyself indeed.
Counsel Fourth, To this end, you must take root and be grounded in love; that is,you must be well settled, and stablished in this love, if indeed you would improveit. You must not be shaken as to the doctrine and grounds of it (Eph 3:17). Theseyou must be well acquainted with: for he that is but a child in this doctrine, isnot capable as yet, of falling in with these exhortations: For such waver, and fearwhen tempted; and "he that feareth is not made perfect in love" (1 John4:18), nor can he so improve it for himself and soul's good as he should.
Counsel Fifth, and lastly, Keep, to this end, those grounds, and evidences that Godhath given you of your call to be partakers of this love, with all clearness uponyour hearts, and in your minds. For he that wants a sight of them, or a proof thatthey are true and good, can take but little comfort in this love. There is a greatmystery in the way of God with his people. He will justify them without their works,he will pardon them for his Son's sake: but they shall have but little comfort ofwhat he hath done, doth, and will do for them that are careless, carnal, and notholy in their lives. Nor shall they have their evidences for heaven at hand, norout of doubt with them, yea, they shall walk without the sun, and have their comfortsby bits and knocks; while others sit at their father's table, have liberty togo into the wine-cellar, rejoice at the sweet and pleasant face of their heavenlyFather towards them; and know it shall go well with them at the end.
Something now for a conclusion should be spoken to the carnal world, who have heardme tell of all this love. But what shall I say unto them? If I should speak to them,and they should not hear; or if I should testify unto them, and they should not believe;or intreat them, and they should scorn me; all will but aggravate, and greaten theirsin, and tend to their further condemnation. And therefore I shall leave the obstinatewhere I found him, and shall say to him that is willing to be saved, Sinner, thouhast the advantage of thy neighbour, not only because thou art willing to live, butbecause there are [those] that are willing thou shouldest; to wit, those unto whomthe issues from death do belong, and they are the Father and the Son, to whom beglory with the blessed Spirit of grace, world without end. Amen.
 In the first edition of this treatise, which was published four years after Bunyan'sdeath, this is quoted "deeper than the sea," probably a typographical error.It is afterwards quoted correctly.—Ed.
 How admirably does Bunyan bring home to the Christian's heart these solemn truths.The breadth and length and depth and height of our guilt and misery, requires a remedybeyond all human power. This can only be found in the love of God in Christ: thisextends beyond all bounds. It is divine, unsearchable, eternal mercy, swallowingup all our miseries.— Ed.
 Shuck, a corruption of shrug, to express horror by motions of the body.
 This is a very striking application of these words of David, which so fearfullydescribe the agitation of those who are exposed to a hurricane at sea. We too generallylimit this passage to its literal sense. To Bunyan, who had passed through such adeep experience of the "terrors of the Lord," when he came out of tribulationand anguish, he must have richly enjoyed the solemn imagery of these words, depictingthe inmost feelings of his soul when in the horrible deeps of doubt and despair.But young Christians must not be distressed because they have never experienced suchtempests: thousands of vessels of mercy get to heaven, without meeting with hurricanesin their way.—Ed.
 How thankful should we be, for the great spread of gospel light in this country,since Bunyan's days. He for refusing to attend, what he considered, an unscripturalchurch; suffered above twelve years" incarceration in a miserable den; whileall his friends were either imprisoned or plundered. It was a dreadful attempt toroot out Christianity from this country; but was overruled to make it take deeperroot. How long will Antichrist still hold up his head in this country? He has hadsome hard knocks of late.—Ed.
 This is one of those strikingly solemn passages, which abound in Bunyan's works.It almost irresistibly brings to our imagination his expressive countenance, piercingeyes and harmonious voice; pressed on by his rapid conceptions and overpowering naturaleloquence. How must it have riveted the attention of a great congregation. It isa rush of words, rolling on like the waves of the sea; increasing in grandeur andin force as they multiply in number.—Ed.
 The reader must not misunderstand the word common as here applied to the Saviour.It has the same meaning that is applied to a piece of land, to which many personshave an equal or common right; but which none but those, who have a right or title,can use. It strikingly illustrates the union of Christ and his church.—Ed.
 There is no affectation of learning in Bunyan's giving the meaning of the Hebrewword, Metheg; it is translated in the margin of our Bibles, "the bridle"of Ammah.—Ed.
 Bunyan seems here evidently to refer to the case of unregenerate and worldlymen entering into the ministry, and making a public and solemn declaration that they"are inwardly moved thereto by the Holy Ghost," and "truly calledaccording to the will of our Lord Jesus Christ." See form and manner of ordainingdeacons and priests in the Church of England.—Ed.
 Bunyan quotes this passage from the puritan version; vulgarly called "TheBreeches Bible." The present authorized translation is "might be rich."
 "Virtue," secret agency: efficacy without visible or material action."Walker's Dictionary."—Ed.
 "Improving," not in quality but by extending the benefits, employingto good purpose; turning to profitable account.—Ed.
 How delightfully has Bunyan brought forth the marrow of this important text.He felt that those who were filled with all the fullness of God, sweetened the churchesin his day; they were wanted then; are they not equally wanted now?—Ed.
 Bunyan lived in singularly eventful times. Under the Commonwealth the strictestoutward morality was enforced. But when a licentious monarch was placed upon thethrone, a flood of the grossest debauchery was let loose; and those hypocrites, whohad put on a cloak of religion to serve a temporary purpose, threw it off and becameringleaders in the vilest iniquities. See Matthew 12:43-45.—Ed.
 "Bits and knocks"; this phrase is now obsolete: it alludes to a dogat table, who while picking up the crumbs, often gets a bite and a buffet or knockwith it, but still perseveres.—Ed.